Posts belonging to Category electronics



Medical Nanorobots

Researchers from the Institute of General Physics, the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russia, Academy of Sciences) and MIPT have made an important step towards creating medical nanorobots. They discovered a way of enabling nano- and microparticles to produce logical calculations using a variety of biochemical reactions.
biological nanorobotsThe scientists draw on the idea of computing using biomolecules. In electronic circuits, for instance, logical connectives use current or voltage (if there is voltage, the result is 1, if there is none, it’s 0). In biochemical systems, the result can a given substance. For example, modern bioengineering techniques allow for making a cell illuminate with different colors or even programming it to die, linking the initiation of apoptosis to the result of binary operations.

Scientists say logical operations inside cells to be a way of controlling biological processes and creating nano-robots, which can deliver drugs on schedule. Calculations using biomolecules inside cells, a.k.a. biocomputing, are a very promising and rapidly developing branch of science, according to the leading author of the study, Maxim Nikitin, a 2010 graduate of MIPT’s Department of Biological and Medical Physics. Biocomputing uses natural cellular mechanisms.

The study paves the way for a number of biomedical technologies and differs significantly from previous works in biocomputing binary operations in DNA, RNA and proteins for over a decade now, but Maxim Nikitin and his colleagues were the first to propose and experimentally confirm a method to transform almost any type of nanoparticle or microparticle into autonomous biocomputing structures that are capable of implementing a functionally complete set of Boolean logic gates (YES, NOT, AND and OR) and binding to a target (such as a cell) as result of a computation.

The prefix “nano” in this case is not a fad or a mere formality. A decrease in particle size sometimes leads to drastic changes in the physical and chemical properties of a substance. The smaller the size, the greater the reactivity; very small semiconductor particles, for example, may produce fluorescent light. The new research project used nanoparticles (i.e. particles of 100 nm) and microparticles (3000 nm or 3 micrometers).

The new work was published on the website of the journal Nature Nanotechnology.
Source: http://mipt.ru/

Computer: Nano Optical Cables To Replace Copper

Electrical engineers design nano-optical cables that could replace copper wiring on computer chips. The invention of fibre optics revolutionized the way we share information, allowing us to transmit data at volumes and speeds we’d only previously dreamed of. Now, electrical engineering researchers at the University of Alberta are breaking another barrier, designing nano-optical cables small enough to replace the copper wiring on computer chips. This could result in radical increases in computing speeds and reduced energy use by electronic devices. A new step towards the nanocomputer era.
photonics

We’re already transmitting data from continent to continent using fibre optics, but the killer application is using this inside chips for interconnect—that is the Holy Grail,” says Zubin Jacob, an electrical engineering professosr leading the research. “What we’ve done is come up with a fundamentally new way of confining light to the nano scale.
At present, the diameter of fibre optic cables is limited to about one thousandth of a millimetre. Cables designed by graduate student Saman Jahani and Jacob are 10 times smaller—small enough to replace copper wiring still used on computer chips. (To put that into perspective, a dime is about one millimetre thick.)

Source: http://uofa.ualberta.ca/

Cigarette Butts Better Than Graphene To Store Energy

A group of scientists from South Korea have converted cigarette butts into a high-performing material that could be integrated into computers, handheld devices, electrical vehicles and wind turbines to store energy. Presenting their findings today, 5 August 2014, in IOP Publishing’s journal Nanotechnology, the researchers have demonstrated the material’s superior performance compared to commercially available carbon, graphene and carbon nanotubes. It is hoped the material can be used to coat the electrodes of supercapacitors electrochemical components that can store extremely large amounts of electrical energy – while also offering a solution to the growing environmental problem caused by used cigarette filters. It is estimated that as many as 5.6 trillion cigarette butts (equivalent to 766 571 metric tons), are deposited into the environment worldwide every year.

cigarette buttsOur study has shown that used cigarette filters can be transformed into a high-performing carbon-based material using a simple one-step process, which simultaneously offers a green solution to meeting the energy demands of society“, said co-author of the study Professor Jongheop Yi, from Seoul National University. “Numerous countries are developing strict regulations to avoid the trillions of toxic and non-biodegradable used cigarette filters that are disposed of into the environment each year; our method is just one way of achieving this.”

Source: http://www.iop.org/

How Bonds Fracture

Looking at the molecular level, in order to understand how bonds fracture, from airplane wings to dental crowns, this is the purpose of a MIT research team. Materials that are firmly bonded together with epoxy and other tough adhesives are ubiquitous in modern life — from crowns on teeth to modern composites used in construction. Yet it has proved remarkably difficult to study how these bonds fracture and fail, and how to make them more resistant to such failures.
Now researchers at MIT have found a way to study these bonding failures directly, revealing the crucial role of moisture in setting the stage for failure.

airplane wingsThe bonding problem is a general problem that is encountered in many disciplines, especially in medicine and dentistry,” says Buyukozturk, whose research has focused on infrastructure, where such problems are also of great importance. “The interface between a base material and epoxy, for example, really controls the properties. If the interface is weak, you lose the entire system.”
The composite may be made of a strong and durable material bonded to another strong and durable material,” Buyukozturk adds, “but where you bond them doesn’t necessarily have to be strong and durable.”
Their findings are published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science in a paper by MIT professors of civil and environmental engineering Oral Buyukozturk and Markus Buehler; research associate Kurt Broderick of MIT’s Microsystems Technology Laboratories; and doctoral student Denvid Lau, who has since joined the faculty at the City University of Hong Kong.
Source: https://newsoffice.mit.edu/

Thousand Miles Range Electric Car

Imagine owning an electric vehicle that can travel 1,000 miles (1610 km) before needing to be recharged. Now imagine that same vehicle being able to be charged to capacity in less than 5 minutes. Or, imagine owning a smart phone that only needs to be charged once a week and that charge taking less than one minute. Now a little start-up company, HyCarb, led by Sigrid Cottrell, is working to allow that imaginary world to come true. Hyper efficient supercapacitors & batteries are designed by utilizing Nanotechnology and nano-super structure technologies in order to power the next generation of consumer electronics, electric vehicles, military equipment and medical devices. They function as both a battery and a supercapacitor. They provide the long, steady power output comparable to a conventional battery, as well as a supercapacitor’s quick burst of high energy.

2014 Renault

HyCarb, Inc. is a Florida-based, for-profit, small business, headquartered at the UCF Business Incubator in Research Park. The team of researchers has already filed 3 patents protecting the system of processes required to generate a Hy-Carb supercapictor battery develops nanostructured materials using high-throughput combinatorial electrochemical methods and other proprietary techniques.

Nano-engineered battery/super capacitor is lightweight, ultra thin, completely flexible, and geared toward meeting the trickiest design and energy requirements of tomorrow’s gadgets, electric vehicles, implantable medical equipment and any number of other applications. aligned carbon nanotubes, which will give the device its black color. The nanotubes act as electrodes and allow the storage devices to conduct electricity.
The creation of this unique nano-composite surface drew from a diverse pool of disciplines, requiring expertise in materials science, energy storage, and chemistry. Along with use in small handheld electronics, the batteries’ lighter weight could make them ideal for use in automobiles, aircraft, and even boats. The Hy-Carb Supercapicitor could also be manufactured into different shapes, such as a car door, which would enable important new engineering innovations. .
Source: http://www.hy-carb.com/

Face Recognition Approaches One Hundred Percent Accuracy

A research team at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, led by Professor Xiaoou Tang, announced 99.15% face recognition accuracy achieved in Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) database (a database of face photographs designed for studying the problem of unconstrained face recognition).
The technology developed by Xiaoou Chen’s team is called DeepID, which is more accurate than visual identification.

face recognition
LFW is the most widely used face recognition benchmarks. Experimental results show that, if only the central region of the face is given, with the naked eye in the LFW person recognition rate is 97.52%

The three face recognition algorithms developed by Xiaoou Chen’s team now occupies the top three LFW recognition accuracy rate, followed by Facebook’s Deepface.

His lab has been based on the latest technological breakthroughs to produce a complete set of facial image processing system (SDK), including face detection, face alignment of key points, face recognition, expression recognition, gender recognition, age estimation

Xiaoou Tang plans to provide face recognition technology for free to Android, iOS and Windows Phone developers; with the help of this FreeFace-SDK, the developer can develop a variety of applications based on face recognition on the phone.

Source: http://cloud.itsc.cuhk.edu.hk/

Sniffing Out Explosives, Better Than Trained Dogs

Tel Aviv University researchers have built a groundbreaking sensor that detects miniscule concentrations of hazardous materials in the air. Security forces worldwide rely on sophisticated equipment, trained personnel, and detection dogs to safeguard airports and other public areas against terrorist attacks. A revolutionary new electronic chip with nano-sized chemical sensors is about to make their job much easier. The groundbreaking nanotechnology-inspired sensor, devised by Prof. Fernando Patolsky of Tel Aviv University‘s School of Chemistry and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, and developed by the Herzliya company Tracense, picks up the scent of explosives molecules better than a detection dog’s nose.
Existing explosives sensors are expensive, bulky and require expert interpretation of the findings. In contrast, the new sensor is mobile, inexpensive, and identifies in real time — and with great accuracy explosives in the air at concentrations as low as a few molecules per 1,000 trillion.
explosive detective dog
Using a single tiny chip that consists of hundreds of supersensitive sensors, we can detect ultra low traces of extremely volatile explosives in air samples, and clearly fingerprint and differentiate them from other non-hazardous materials,” said Prof. Patolsky, a top researcher in the field of nanotechnology. “In real time, it detects small molecular species in air down to concentrations of parts-per-quadrillion, which is four to five orders of magnitude more sensitive than any existing technological method, and two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive than a dog’s nose. “This chip can also detect improvised explosives, such as TATP (triacetone triperoxide), used in suicide bombing attacks in Israel and abroad,” Prof. Patolsky added.
Research on the sensor was recently published in the journal Nature Communications.

Source: http://english.tau.ac.il/

How To Embed Semiconductor Crystals Into A Nanowire

Researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) (Germany), the Vienna University of Technology (Austria) and the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Lublin (Poland) have succeeded in embedding nearly perfect semiconductor crystals into a silicon nanowire. With this new method of producing hybrid nanowires, very fast and multi-functional processing units can be accommodated on a single chip (nanocomputer) in the future.
Nano-optoelectronics are considered the cornerstone of future chip technology. Scientists have now come a step closer to both these targets: they integrated compound semiconductor crystals made of indium arsenide (InAs) into silicon nanowires, which are ideally suited for constructing increasingly compact chips.

This integration of crystals was the greatest obstacle for such “hetero-nanowires” until now: beyond the nanometer range, crystal lattice mismatch always led to numerous defects. The researchers have now managed a near-perfect production and embedding of the InAs crystals into the nanowires for the first time.
iridium arsenide

Indium arsenide (green-cyan) is perfectly integrated into the silicon nanowire (blue). (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (colored pricture) was performed at École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland.

The research results will be published in the journal Nano Research.

Source: https://www.hzdr.de/

A Nanocomputer 200 Times Smaller Than A Pinhead

The nanocomputer measures 0.3 x 0.03 millimeters (0.009 square millimeters) in size. To compare with a pinhead whose surface is 2 square millimeters. That means the nanocomputer built by the MITRE-Harvard researchers is 200 times smaller than a pinhead.
The interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers from The MITRE Corporation (a non for profit US governmental organization) and Harvard University has taken key steps toward ultra-small electronic computer systems that push beyond the imminent end of Moore’s Law, which states that the device density and overall processing power for computers will double every two to three years. In a paper that has been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes how they designed and assembled, from the bottom up, a functioning, ultra-tiny control computer that is the densest nanoelectronic system ever built.

In the nanocomputer, nanoswitches are assembled and organized into circuits on severaltiles” (modules). Together, the tiles route small electronic signals around the computer, enabling it to perform calculations and process signals that could be used to control tiny systems, such as miniscule medical therapeutic devices, other tiny sensors and actuators, or even insect-sized robots
Construction of this nanocomputer was made possible by significant advances in processes that assemble with extreme precision dense arrays of the many nanodevices required. These advances also made it possible to manufacture multiple copies.
It was a challenge to develop a system architecture and nanocircuit designs that would pack the control functions we wanted into such a very tiny system,” according to Shamik Das, chief architect of the nanocomputer, who is also principal engineer and group leader of MITRE’s Nanosystems Group. “Once we had those designs, though, our Harvard collaborators did a brilliant job innovating to be able to realize them.”

Source: http://www.mitre.org/

Electronics Enter The Nanocomputer Age

An UAlberta research team is developing atom-scale, ultra-low-power computing devices to replace transistor circuits. In the drive to get small, Robert Wolkow and his lab at the University of Alberta are taking giant steps forward. The digital age has resulted in a succession of smaller, cleaner and less power-hungry technologies since the days the personal computer fit atop a desk, replacing mainframe models that once filled entire rooms. Desktop PCs have since given way to smaller and smaller laptops, smartphones and devices that most of us carry around in our pockets. But as Wolkow points out, this technological shrinkage can only go so far when using traditional transistor-based integrated circuits. That’s why he and his research team are aiming to build entirely new technologies at the atomic scale.
Our ultimate goal is to make ultra-low-power electronics because that’s what is most demanded by the world right now,” said Wolkow, the iCORE Chair in Nanoscale Information and Communications Technology in the Faculty of Science. “We are approaching some fundamental limits that will stop the 30-year-long drive to make things faster, cheaper, better and smaller; this will come to an end soon. “An entirely new method of computing will be necessary.”

Wolkow and his team in the U of A’s physics department and the National Institute for Nanotechnology are working to engineer atomically precise technologies that have practical, real-world applications. His lab already made its way into the Guinness Book of World Records for inventing the world’s sharpest object—a microscope tip just one atom wide at its end.

Source: http://uofa.ualberta.ca/