Posts belonging to Category electronics



Super Bendable Screen

From smartphones and tablets to computer monitors and interactive TV screens, electronic displays are everywhere. As the demand for instant, constant communication grows, so too does the urgency for more convenient portable devices — especially devices, like computer displays, that can be easily rolled up and put away, rather than requiring a flat surface for storage and transportation. A new Tel Aviv University (TAU) study, published recently in Nature Nanotechnology, suggests that a novel DNA-peptide structure can be used to produce thin, transparent, and flexible screens. The research, conducted by Prof. Ehud Gazit and doctoral student Or Berger of the Department of Molecular Microbiology at TAU‘s Faculty of Life Sciences, harnesses bionanotechnology to emit a full range of colors in one pliable pixel layer — as opposed to the several rigid layers that constitute today’s screens.
flexiblescreens
Researchers tested different combinations of peptides: short protein fragments, embedded with DNA elements which facilitate the self-assembly of a unique molecular architecture. Peptides and DNA are two of the most basic building blocks of life. Each cell of every life form is composed of such building blocks. In the field of bionanotechnology, scientists utilize these building blocks to develop novel technologies with properties not available for inorganic materials such as plastic and metal.

Our material is light, organic, and environmentally friendly,” said Prof. Gazit. “It is flexible, and a single layer emits the same range of light that requires several layers today. By using only one layer, you can minimize production costs dramatically, which will lead to lower prices for consumers as well.”
Once we discovered the DNA-like organization, we tested the ability of the structures to bind to DNA-specific fluorescent dyes,” said Berger. “To our surprise, the control sample, with no added dye, emitted the same fluorescence as the variable. This proved that the organic structure is itself naturally fluorescent.“.
Source: https://www.aftau.org/

How To convert Your Waste Heat Into Electricity

A mathematical model of heat flow through miniature wires could help develop thermoelectric devices that efficiently convert heat — even their own waste heat — into electricity.

Developed at A*STAR (Singapore), the model describes the movement of vibrations called phonons, which are responsible for carrying heat in insulating materials. Phonons typically move in straight lines in nanowires — threads barely a few atoms wide. Previous calculations suggested that if parts of a nanowire contained random arrangements of two different types of atoms, phonons would be stopped in their tracks. In actual alloy nanowires, though, atoms of the same element might cluster together to form short sections composed of the same elements.

phononsPhonons (vibrations) are typically responsible for carrying heat along a nanowire. A*STAR researchers have used a numerical model to calculate the effects of short-range ordering on phonon behaviour.

Now, Zhun-Yong Ong and Gang Zhang of the A*STAR Institute of High Performance Computing in Singapore have calculated the effects of such short-range order on the behavior of phonons1. Their results suggest that heat conduction in a nanowire does not just depend on the relative concentrations of the alloy atoms and the difference in their masses; it also depends on how the atoms are distributed.

Source: http://www.research.a-star.edu.sg/

New Electric Car Is Powered By Saltwater

What if the future of the car industry is the saltwater? Prof. Jens Ellermann, President of the Board of Directors of the company nanoFlowcell AG , has presented 2 cars powered by saltwater at the Motor Show in Geneva. With the QUANT F and the QUANTiNO, the company based in Liechtenstein has provoked a huge curiosity with the QUANT product family powered by nanoFlowcell.
In the same time in the United States, GE Global Research is working on flow batteries, in collaboration with Berkeley Lab.

quant FThe Quant F car claimed 370 miles on a charge, zero to 62 mph in 2.8 seconds, and a top speed of 218 mph. Under the hood were four three-phase electric motors and in place of a fuel cell or conventional battery was an experimental salt water flow battery.
Flow cell technology has finally become instilled in the automobile industry’s collective consciousness” says Ellerman.
The GE/Berkeley team is developing a water-based, flow battery capable of more than just traditional, stationary energy storage. The chemistries GE scientists are developing will enable a flow battery that derives its power from a novel electrochemical reaction that all resides safely in a bath of water.
The proposed flow battery uses water-based solutions of inorganic chemicals that are capable of transferring more than one electron, providing high-energy density. Discharge and recharge of such flow batteries occur in electrochemical cells separated from energy storing tanks, which makes them safer.
The new battery could be just one-fourth the cost of comparable car batteries on the market today and have a driving range of 240 miles. That’s three times the current range. The GE/Berkeley team is working on an ARPA-E RANGE project to develop affordable energy storage solutions.
In addition to offering significant advantages in terms of cost and range, the flow battery GE is researching would offer safety improvements over batteries used in cars today, and could be easily integrated into current car designs; both stated goals of ARPA-E’s RANGE program.
Source: http://www.geglobalresearch.com/
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http://www.nanoflowcell.com/

Mimicking Nature’s Tiniest Patterns

Our world is full of patterns, from the twist of a DNA molecule to the spiral of the Milky Way. New research from Carnegie Mellon (CMU) chemists has revealed that tiny, synthetic gold nanoparticles exhibit some of nature’s most intricate patterns.
Unveiling the kaleidoscope of these patterns was a Herculean task, and it marks the first time that a nanoparticle of this size has been crystallized and its structure mapped out atom by atom.
gold nanoparticle structure
The x-ray crystallographic structure of the gold nanoparticle is shown.
Gold atoms = magenta;
sulfur atoms = yellow;
carbon atoms = gray;
hydrogen atoms = white.

As you broadly think about different research areas or even our everyday lives, these kinds of patterns, these hierarchical patterns, are universal,” said Rongchao Jin, associate professor of chemistry. “Our universe is really beautiful and when you see this kind of information in something as small as a 133-atom nanoparticle and as big as the Milky Way, it’s really amazing.”
Gold nanoparticles, which can vary in size from 1 to 100 nanometers, are a promising technology that has applications in a wide range of fields including catalysis, electronics, materials science and health care. But, in order to use gold nanoparticles in practical applications, scientists must first understand the tiny particles’ structure.
Structure essentially determines the particle’s properties, so without knowing the structure, you wouldn’t be able to understand the properties and you wouldn’t be able to functionalize them for specific applications,” said Jin, an expert in creating atomically precise gold nanoparticles.
With this latest research, Jin and his colleagues, including graduate student Chenjie Zeng, have solved the structure of a nanoparticle, Au133, made up of 133 gold atoms and 52 surface-protecting molecules — the biggest nanoparticle structure ever resolved with X-ray crystallography.
The researchers report their work in the March 20 issue of Science Advances.
Source: http://www.cmu.edu/

Liquid-Metal Alloys For “Soft Robots”

New research shows how inkjet-printing technology can be used to mass-produce electronic circuits made of liquid-metal alloys for “soft robots” and flexible electronics. Elastic technologies could make possible a new class of pliable robots and stretchable garments that people might wear to interact with computers or for therapeutic purposes. However, new manufacturing techniques must be developed before soft machines become commercially feasible, said Rebecca Kramer, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Purdue University.
liquid robot
“We want to create stretchable electronics that might be compatible with soft machines, such as robots that need to squeeze through small spaces, or wearable technologies that aren’t restrictive of motion,” she said. “Conductors made from liquid metal can stretch and deform without breaking.

A new potential manufacturing approach focuses on harnessing inkjet printing to create devices made of liquid alloys.

inkjet pritingThis artistic rendering depicts electronic devices created using a new inkjet-printing technology to produce circuits made of liquid-metal alloys for “soft robots” and flexible electronics. Elastic technologies could make possible a new class of pliable robots and stretchable garments that people might wear to interact with computers or for therapeutic purposes.

This process now allows us to print flexible and stretchable conductors onto anything, including elastic materials and fabrics,” Kramer said.

Liquid metal in its native form is not inkjet-able,” he underscores. “So what we do is create liquid metal nanoparticles that are small enough to pass through an inkjet nozzle“.

After printing, the nanoparticles must be rejoined by applying light pressure, which renders the material conductive.
A research paper about the method will appear on April 18 in the journal Advanced Materials.
Source: http://www.purdue.edu/

Under Attack Robots Dance To Stay On Feet

It’s another day of abuse for this poor robot named Atrias. If not being kicked around, Atrias spends hours being pummelled by balls. But, remarkably, through the abuse, the robot stays on its feet. Unlike most bipedal robots which are designed to move like humans, researchers at Oregon State University modelled Atrias after a bird, creating what’s basically a robotic ostrich that conserves energy while maximizing agility and balance.
atrias CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE ROBOT DANCE
Atrias is fitted with two constantly moving pogo stick-like legs made of carbon fiber. Fiberglass springs store the mechanical energy produced while the robot makes unsuccessful attempts to avoid the punishment it receives from its creators. The researchers say that with a few more tweaks, the robots bird-like design will allow it to become the fastest two-legged robot ever built.
Atrias is funded by the U.S. Defense Department’s research arm, DARPA, who hope the robot will one day be able to work in hazard zones too dangerous for humans. But until that day comes - Atrias will just have to keep on taking the abuse — all in the name of science.
Source: http://mime.oregonstate.edu/

Cheap Batteries For Hydrogen Electric Car

Electrochemical devices are crucial to a green energy revolution in which clean alternatives replace carbon-based fuels. This revolution requires conversion systems that produce hydrogen from water or rechargeable batteries that can store clean energy in cars. Now, Singapore-based researchers have developed improved catalysts as electrodes for efficient and more durable green energy devices.

Electrochemical devices such as batteries use chemical reactions to create and store energy. One of the cleanest reactions is the conversion from water into oxygen and hydrogen. Using energy from the sun, water can be converted into those two elements, which then store this solar energy in gaseous form. Burning hydrogen leads to a chemical explosion that produces water.

For technical applications, the conversion from hydrogen and oxygen into water is done in fuel cells, while some rechargeable batteries use chemical reactions based on oxygen to store and release energy. A crucial element for both types of devices is the cathode, which is the electrical contact where these reactions take place. The research team, which included Zhaolin Liu and colleagues from the A*STAR Institute of Materials Research and Engineering with colleagues from Nanyang Technological University and the National University of Singapore, combined nanometer-sized crystals of this material with sheets of carbon or carbon nanotubes.

oxyde-carbon compositesOxide/carbon composites could power green metal-air batteries

The cost is estimated to be tens of times cheaper than the platinum/carbon composites used at present,” says Liu. Because platinum is expensive, intensive efforts are being made to find alternative materials for batteries.

Source:: http://www.research.a-star.edu.sg/

How To process Graphene To Produce Solar Cells

A new technique invented at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to produce graphene — a material made up of an atom-thick layer of carbon, at room temperature, could help pave the way for commercially feasible graphene-based solar cells and light-emitting diodes, large-panel displays, and flexible electronics.

With this new technique, we can grow large sheets of electronic-grade graphene in much less time and at much lower temperatures,” says Caltech staff scientist David Boyd, who developed the method. Boyd is the first author of a new study, published in the journal Nature Communications, detailing the new manufacturing process and the novel properties of the graphene it produces.

graphene2014
Graphene revolutionizes a variety of engineering and scientific fields due to its unique properties, which include a tensile strength 200 times stronger than steel and an electrical mobility that is two to three orders of magnitude better than silicon. The electrical mobility of a material is a measure of how easily electrons can travel across its surface. However, achieving these properties on an industrially relevant scale has proven to be complicated. Existing techniques require temperatures that are much too hot — 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit, or 1,000 degrees Celsius — for incorporating graphene fabrication with current electronic manufacturing. Additionally, high-temperature growth of graphene tends to induce large, uncontrollably distributed strain—deformation—in the material, which severely compromises its intrinsic properties.

Previously, people were only able to grow a few square millimeters of high-mobility graphene at a time, and it required very high temperatures, long periods of time, and many steps,” says Caltech physics professor Nai-Chang Yeh, the Fletcher Jones Foundation Co-Director of the Kavli Nanoscience Institute and the corresponding author of the new study. “Our new method can consistently produce high-mobility and nearly strain-free graphene in a single step in just a few minutes without high temperature. We have created sample sizes of a few square centimeters, and since we think that our method is scalable, we believe that we can grow sheets that are up to several square inches or larger, paving the way to realistic large-scale applications.”

Source: http://www.caltech.edu/

How To Split Water At Low Cost To Produce Hydrogen

UNSW (Australia) scientists have developed a highly efficient oxygen-producing electrode for splitting water that has the potential to be scaled up for industrial production of clean energy fuel, hydrogen. This breaktrough is important for the future development of hydrogen electric cars (H mobil). The new technology is based on an inexpensive, specially coated foam material that lets the bubbles of oxygen escape quickly. Inefficient and costly oxygen-producing electrodes are one of the major barriers to the widespread commercial production of hydrogen by electrolysis, where the water is split into hydrogen and oxygen using an electrical current.

watersplitting Electrode

Our electrode is the most efficient oxygen-producing electrode in alkaline electrolytes reported to date, to the best of our knowledge,” says Associate Professor Chuan Zhao, of the UNSW School of Chemistry. “It is inexpensive, sturdy and simple to make, and can potentially be scaled up for industrial application of water splitting.”

The research, by Associate Professor Zhao and Dr Xunyu Lu, is published in the journal Nature Communications.

Source: http://www.newsroom.unsw.edu.au/

Electric Car Race: The Rise Of Formula E

Downtown Miami has been converted into a race track. Cement blocks, fencing and grandstands are all in place for the first electric car race ever held on U.S. soil. Miami is the fifth of ten cities around the world to host during the inaugural year of the Formula E Championship, a fully electric race car series. Teams of mechanics are preparing their electric cars for Saturday’s race. Mark Schneider from Team Audi ABT says Formula E is in many ways similar to Formula 1. The cars are fast, the suspense on race day is high, but instead of the roar of a gasoline powered engines, these electric cars let out a high pitched hum as they barrel down the track. Schneider says pits stop are a bit different as well.
mazda-kaan-electric-car2
We do a pit stops like other racing series but when formula 1 changes tires we change cars. So we have two cars for each driver and after roughly half an hour the driver gets into the pits, jumps out of the car, jumps into another car and goes out again“, says Mark Schneider. Each car is powered by a massive lithium ion battery that makes up a third of the cars overall weight. Formula E CEO Alejandro Agag says with time those batteries will become more efficient and smaller allowing them to power a single car for an entire race. He says the concept behind formula E is to drive research and development in the electric automotive space to new heights.

Formula 1, Indy Car, NASCAR are places where new technologies have been developed that then have been used on road cars and we want Formula E to be the place that happens for the electric car,” he noticed. Along with innovations on the track, Agag says he wants to attract young fans to Formula E by utilizing technology off the track as well. He says plans are in the works to develop an interactive virtual track that will allow people to compete on race day from their homes. He concludes: “So if you are a kid at home you can play with the virtual car, a shadow car, against the real racers in real time.
Source: http://www.reuters.com/