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Printed 3D Nanostructures Against Counterfeiting

Security features are to protect bank notes, documents, and branded products against counterfeiting. Losses caused by product forgery and counterfeiting may be enormous. According to the German Engineering Association, the damage caused in 2016 in its branch alone amounted to EUR 7.3 billion. In the Advanced Materials Technologies journal, researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the ZEISS company now propose to use printed 3D microstructures instead of 2D structures, such as holograms, to improve counterfeit protection.

Today, optical security features, such as holograms, are frequently based on two-dimensional microstructures,” says Professor Martin Wegener, expert for 3D printing of microstructures at the Institute of Nanotechnology of KIT. “By using 3D-printed fluorescent microstructures, counterfeit protection can be increased.” The new security features have a side length of about 100 µm and are barely visible with the eye or a conventional microscope. For their production and application, Wegener and his team have developed an innovative method that covers all processes from microstructure fabrication to the readout of information.

The microstructures consist of a 3D cross-grid scaffold and dots that fluoresce in different colors and can be arranged variably in three dimensions within this grid. To produce and print such microstructures, the experts use a rapid and precise laser lithography device developed and commercialized by the Nanoscribe company, a spinoff of KIT. It enables highly precise manufacture of voluminous structures of a few millimeters edge length or of microstructured surfaces of several cm² in dimension. The special 3D printer produces the structures layer by layer from non-fluorescent and two fluorescent photoresists. A laser beam very precisely passes certain points of the liquid photoresist. The material is exposed and hardened at the focus point of the laser beam. The resulting filigree structure is then embedded in a transparent polymer in order to protect it against damage.

Source: http://www.kit.edu/

Breathing in Delhi air equivalent to smoking 44 cigarettes a day

It was early on the morning when residents in the Indian capital of Delhi first began to notice the thick white haze that had descended across the city. Initially viewed as a mild irritant, by mid-week its debilitating effects were evident to all, as the city struggled to adapt to the new eerie, martian-like conditions brought about by the pollution.

The World Health Organization considers anything above 25 to be unsafe. That measure is based on the concentration of fine particulate matter, or PM2.5, per cubic meter. The microscopic particles, which are smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter, are considered particularly harmful because they are small enough to lodge deep into the lungs and pass into other organs, causing serious health risks.
With visibility severely reduced, trains have been canceled, planes delayed and cars have piled into each other, with multiple traffic accidents reported across the city. On the afternoon, city chiefs closed all public and private schools, requesting instead that the city’s tens of thousands of school-aged children remain indoors; they banned incoming trucks and halted civil construction projects; while they announced new plans to begin implementing a partial ban on private car use as of next week. But as the city woke up to a fourth straight day of heavy pollution, practical considerations were being overtaken by more serious concerns, with journalists and doctors warning residents of the long-term health implications.

Air quality readings in the Indian capital have reached frightening levels in recent days, at one point topping the 1,000 mark on the US embassy air quality index. Across the capital, doctors reported a surge in patients complaining of chest pain, breathlessness and burning eyes. “The number of patients have increased obviously,” said Deepak Rosha, a pulmonologist at Apollo Hospital, one of the largest private hospitals in Delhi. “I don’t think it’s ever been so bad in Delhi. I’m very angry that we’ve had to come to this.”
Breathing in air with a PM2.5 content of between 950 to 1,000 is considered roughly equivalent to smoking 44 cigarettes a day, according to the independent Berkeley Earth science research group.

Photovoltaics: Light Absorption Enhanced by Up to 200 Percent

Sunlight reflected by solar cells is lost as unused energy. The wings of the butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae are drilled by nanostructures (nanoholes) that help absorbing light over a wide spectrum far better than smooth surfaces. Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany, have now succeeded in transferring these nanostructures to solar cells and, thus, enhancing their light absorption rate by up to 200 percent.

 “The butterfly studied by us is very dark black. This signifies that it perfectly absorbs sunlight for optimum heat management. Even more fascinating than its appearance are the mechanisms that help reaching the high absorption. The optimization potential when transferring these structures to photovoltaics (PV) systems was found to be much higher than expected,” says Dr. Hendrik Hölscher of KIT’s Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT).

 

The scientists of the team of Hendrik Hölscher and Radwanul H. Siddique (formerly KIT, now Caltech) reproduced the butterfly’s nanostructures in the silicon absorbing layer of a thin-film solar cell. Subsequent analysis of light absorption yielded promising results: Compared to a smooth surface, the absorption rate of perpendicular incident light increases by 97% and rises continuously until it reaches 207% at an angle of incidence of 50 degrees. “This is particularly interesting under European conditions. Frequently, we have diffuse light that hardly falls on solar cells at a vertical angle,” Hendrik Hölscher says. However, this does not automatically imply that efficiency of the complete PV system is enhanced by the same factor, says Guillaume Gomard of IMT. “Also other components play a role. Hence, the 200 percent are to be considered a theoretical limit for efficiency enhancement.

The scientists have reported their results in the journal Science Advances. (DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700232.)

Source: http://www.kit.edu/

Sophia The Robot Says: ‘I have feelings too’

Until recently, the most famous thing that Sophia the robot had ever done was beat Jimmy Fallon a little too easily in a nationally televised game of rock-paper-scissors.

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But now, the advanced artificial intelligence robot — which looks like Audrey Hepburn, mimics human expressions and may be the grandmother of robots that solve the world’s most complex problems — has a new feather in her cap:

Citizenship.

The kingdom of Saudi Arabia officially granted citizenship to the humanoid robot last week during a program at the Future Investment Initiative, a summit that links deep-pocketed Saudis with inventors hoping to shape the future.

Sophia’s recognition made international headlines — and sparked an outcry against a country with a shoddy human rights record that has been accused of making women second-class citizens.

Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/

Acupuncture And Nanotechnology Married To Cure Cancer

DGIST (Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology) in South Korea announced that Professor Su-Il In’s research team from the department of Energy Science and Engineering has presented the possibility of cancer treatment, including colorectal cancer, using acupuncture needles that employ nanotechnology for the first time in the world.

The research team of Professor Su-Il In, through joint research with Dr. Eunjoo Kim of Companion Diagnostics & Medical Technology Research Group at DGIST and Professor Bong-Hyo Lee’s research team from the College of Oriental Medicine at Daegu Haany University, has published a study showing that the molecular biologic indicators related to anticancer effects are changed only by the treatment of acupuncture, which is widely used in oriental medicine.

In oriental medicine, treatment using acupuncture needles has been commonly practiced for thousands of years in the fields of treating musculoskeletal disorders, pain relief, and addiction relief. Recently, it has emerged as a promising treatment for brain diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, nausea, and vomiting, and studies are under way to use acupuncture to treat severe diseases.

SURFACE IMAGES OF (A) CONVENTIONAL ACUPUNCTURE NEEDLE (CN) AND, (B) THE NANOPOROUS ACUPUNCTURE NEEDLE (PN) WITH ITS (C AND D) HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES

Not only that, Professor In’s team discovered that acupuncture needles can be used for cancer treatment which is difficult to treat in modern medicine. In this study, the researchers developed nanoporous needles with microscopic holes in the surface of the needles ranging from nanopores (nm = one billionth of a meter) to micrometers (μm = one millionth of a meter) by applying relatively simple electrochemical nanotechnology. By increasing the surface area of the needle by a factor of ten, the nanoporous needles doubled the electrophysiological signal generation function by needle stimulus.

As a result of AOM administration in rats, the rats receiving periodic acupuncture treatment with nanoporous needles were found to have a much lower incidence of abnormal vascular clusters as a precursor to colorectal cancer in the initiation stage than those in the control group.

Source: https://www.eurekalert.org/

Thin Films Power Electronics Mixed In Fabrics

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reported significant advances in the thermoelectric performance of organic semiconductors based on carbon nanotube thin films that could be integrated into fabrics to convert waste heat into electricity or serve as a small power source.

The research demonstrates significant potential for semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as the primary material for efficient thermoelectric generators, rather than being used as a component in a “compositethermoelectric material containing, for example, carbon nanotubes and a polymer. The discovery is outlined in the new Energy & Environmental Science paper, Large n- and p-type thermoelectric power factors from doped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube thin films.

There are some inherent advantages to doing things this way,” said Jeffrey Blackburn, a senior scientist in NREL’s Chemical and Materials Science and Technology center and co-lead author of the paper with Andrew Ferguson. These advantages include the promise of solution-processed semiconductors that are lightweight and flexible and inexpensive to manufacture. Other NREL authors are Bradley MacLeod, Rachelle Ihly, Zbyslaw Owczarczyk, and Katherine Hurst. The NREL authors also teamed with collaborators from the University of Denver and partners at International Thermodyne, Inc., based in Charlotte, N.C.

Ferguson, also a senior scientist in the Chemical and Materials Science and Technology center, said the introduction of SWCNT into fabrics could serve an important function for “wearable” personal electronics. By capturing body heat and converting it into electricity, the semiconductor could power portable electronics or sensors embedded in clothing.

Source: https://www.nrel.gov/

How To Detect Lead In Water

Gitanjali Rao, 11-year-old girl, is “America’s Top Young Scientist” of this year, with her invention of Tethys, a device that detects lead in water.

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Tethys, the Greek goddess of fresh water, is a lead detection tool. What you do is first dip a disposable cartridge, which can easily be removed and attached to the core device in the water you wish to test. Once you do that, that’s basically the manual part. Then you just pull out an app on your phone and check your status and it looks like the water in this container is safe. So that’s just very simple, about like a 10 to 15 second process,” says Gitanjali Rao . The young girl was affected by the Flint, Michigan water catastrophe when the city started using the Flint River for water in 2014, sparking a crisis that was linked to an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease, at least 12 deaths and dangerously high lead levels in children.

I was most affected about Flint, Michigan because of the amount of people that were getting affected by the lead in water. And I also realized that it wasn’t just in Flint, Michigan and there were over 5,000 water systems in the U.S. alone. In the beginning of my final presentation at the event, I talked about a little boy named Opemipo, he’s 10 years old and lives in Flint, Michigan. And he has 1 percent elevated lead levels in his blood. And he’s among the thousands of adults and children exposed to the harmful effects of lead in water. So it’s a pretty big deal out there today,” remembers Rao. The seventh-grader said it took her five months to make Tethys from start to finish.

My first couple of times when I was doing my experimentation and test, I did fail so many times and it was frustrating, but I knew that it was just a learning experience and I could definitely develop my device further by doing even more tests and getting advice from my mentor as well. So, never be afraid to try,” explains Rao, who  won the 2017 Discovery Education 3M Young Scientist Challenge, along with a $25,000 prize.

Source: http://www.reuters.com/

How To Clean Nuclear Waste

Cleaning up radioactive waste is a dangerous job for a human. That’s why researchers at the University of  Manchester are developing robots that could do the job for us. Five years ago, in 2011, a major earthquake and tsunami devastated the east coast of Japan, leading to explosions and subsequent radiation release at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The fuel in three of the reactors is believed to have melted, causing a large amount of contaminated water on site.

This is still to be dealt with today – which isn’t too surprising, given that the clean-up of Chernobyl is still underway 30 years after the infamous nuclear accident took place. After the accident at Chernobyl, where an extremely high level of radiation was released, workers had to be sent into areas to which you wouldn’t want to send a human being. For the safety of others, they entered the plant to survey its condition, extinguish fires and manually operate equipment and machinery – all in an environment that endangered their lives. The challenge in dismantling the site at Fukushima is the residual radiation level. In the surrounding areas levels have fallen significantly; in some places (still off limits to former residents) radiation levels actually aren’t very different from natural background levels in certain other parts of the world. But in the reactor itself a person would receive a lethal dose of radiation almost instantly.

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At Fukushima, many of the instrumentation systems, such as reactor-water level and reactor pressure, were lost in the incident. This made assessing the integrity of the plant extremely difficult as you couldn’t send people to go and look at it,” explains Professor Barry Lennox, who, alongside Dr Simon Watson at The University of Manchester, is working to find another way of getting access to such dangerous places: by using robots. Professor Lennox and Dr Watson are part of a team working to adapt robots to help clean up Fukushima. They’re developing an underwater remote-operated vehicle – the AVEXIS – to help identify highly radioactive nuclear fuel that is believed to be dispersed underwater in the damaged reactor. The robot is already aiding decommissioning efforts at Sellafield, where it will swim around the ponds storing legacy waste to map and monitor the conditions within them.

Source: https://www.manchester.ac.uk/

One-Two Knockout Punch To Eradicate Super Bugs

Light-activated nanoparticles, also known as quantum dots, can provide a crucial boost in effectiveness for antibiotic treatments used to combat drug-resistant superbugs such as E. coli and Salmonella, new CU Boulder research shows. Multi-drug resistant pathogens, which evolve their defenses faster than new antibiotic treatments can be developed to treat them, cost the United States an estimated $20 billion in direct healthcare costs and an additional $35 billion in lost productivity in 2013. Rather than attacking the infecting bacteria conventionally, the dots release superoxide, a chemical species that interferes with the bacteria’s metabolic and cellular processes, triggering a fight response that makes it more susceptible to the original antibiotic.

We’ve developed a one-two knockout punch,” said Prashant Nagpal, an assistant professor in CU Boulder’s Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (CHBE) and the co-lead author of the study. “The bacteria’s natural fight reaction [to the dots] actually leaves it more vulnerable.”

We are thinking more like the bug,” explains Anushree Chatterjee, an assistant professor in CHBE and the co-lead author of the study. “This is a novel strategy that plays against the infection’s normal strength and catalyzes the antibiotic instead.” The dots reduced the effective antibiotic resistance of the clinical isolate infections by a factor of 1,000 without producing adverse side effects.

The findings have been published today in the journal Science Advances.

Source: http://www.colorado.edu/

The Ultra Smart Community Of The Future

Japan’s largest electronics show CEATEC – showcasing its version of our future – in a connected world with intelligent robots And cars that know when the driver is falling asleep. This is Omron‘s “Onboard Driving Monitoring Sensor,” checking its driver isn’t distracted.

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We are developing sensors that help the car judge what state the driver is in, with regards to driving. For example, if the driver has his eyes open and set on things he should be looking at, if the driver is distracted or looking at smartphones, and these types of situations,” explains Masaki Suwa, Omron Corp. Chief Technologist.

After 18 years of consumer electronics, CEATEC is changing focus to the Internet of Things and what it calls ‘the ultra-smart community of the future‘ A future where machines take on more important roles – machines like Panasonic‘s CaloRieco – pop in your plate and know exactly what you are about to consume.

By placing freshly cooked food inside the machine, you can measure total calories and the three main nutrients: protein, fat and carbohydrate. By using this machine, you can easily manage your diet,” says Panasonic staff engineer Ryota Sato.

Even playtime will see machines more involved – like Forpheus the ping playing robot – here taking on a Olympic bronze medalist – and learning with every stroke.
Rio Olympics Table Tennis player , Jun Mizutani, Bronze Medalist, reports: “It wasn’t any different from playing with a human being. The robot kept improving and getting better as we played, and to be honest, I wanted to play with it when it had reached its maximum level, to see how good it is.”

Computer Reads Body Language

Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University‘s Robotics Institute have enabled a computer to understand body poses and movements of multiple people from video in real time — including, for the first time, the pose of each individual’s hands and fingers. This new method was developed with the help of the Panoptic Studio — a two-story dome embedded with 500 video cameras — and the insights gained from experiments in that facility now make it possible to detect the pose of a group of people using a single camera and a laptop computer.

Yaser Sheikh, associate professor of robotics, said these methods for tracking 2-D human form and motion open up new ways for people and machines to interact with each other and for people to use machines to better understand the world around them. The ability to recognize hand poses, for instance, will make it possible for people to interact with computers in new and more natural ways, such as communicating with computers simply by pointing at things.

Detecting the nuances of nonverbal communication between individuals will allow robots to serve in social spaces, allowing robots to perceive what people around them are doing, what moods they are in and whether they can be interrupted. A self-driving car could get an early warning that a pedestrian is about to step into the street by monitoring body language. Enabling machines to understand human behavior also could enable new approaches to behavioral diagnosis and rehabilitation, for conditions such as autism, dyslexia and depression.

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We communicate almost as much with the movement of our bodies as we do with our voice,” Sheikh said. “But computers are more or less blind to it.”

In sports analytics, real-time pose detection will make it possible for computers to track not only the position of each player on the field of play, as is now the case, but to know what players are doing with their arms, legs and heads at each point in time. The methods can be used for live events or applied to existing videos.

To encourage more research and applications, the researchers have released their computer code for both multi-person and hand pose estimation. It is being widely used by research groups, and more than 20 commercial groups, including automotive companies, have expressed interest in licensing the technology, Sheikh said.

Sheikh and his colleagues have presented reports on their multi-person and hand pose detection methods at CVPR 2017, the Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference  in Honolulu.

Source: https://www.cmu.edu/

No More Visit To The Doctor’s Office

A visit to the doctor’s office can feel like the worst thing when you’re already sick. This small device is aimed at replacing physical face-to-face check ups. It’s made by Israel’s Tytocare, a leading telemedicine company. Their Tyto device allows patients to conduct examinations of organs and be diagnosed by remote clinicians.

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We basically replicate a face-to-face interaction with a remote clinician while allowing him to do a full physical examination, analysis and the diagnosis of a patient at home,” said Dedi Gilad, CEO of Tytocare.

The associated TytoApp guides users through complicated examinations. It can be used to check heart rate or temperature — as well as conduct examinations of the ears, throat and lungs. And it allows a clinician to interact with patients online or offline. It also represents a significant cost saving – in the US a basic primary care visit costs around 170 dollars, three times the cost of telemedicine appointments. The system was tested at Israel’s Schneider children’s hospital.

What we found was really remarkable, that there was almost no difference between the two types of examinations…But we must be careful about the use. There are certain diseases, certain complaints, that can not be answered by this kind of device and we should carefully judge case by case and be aware of the limitations of this device,”  explains Prof. Yehezkel Waisman, Director of The Emergency Medicine department at Schneider children hospital.

Telemedecine does have its critics, who believe that real-time encounters with a doctor will always be superior. But those behind it say it could drastically cut the number of face-to-face doctors’ visits and save money for healthcare providers and insurers.

Source: http://www.tytocare.com/
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http://www.reuters.com/