Posts belonging to Category green power

Green: How To Clean Oil Sands Water Waste

Researchers have developed a process to remove contaminants from oil sands wastewater using only sunlight and nanoparticles that is more effective and inexpensive than conventional treatment methods.

Frank Gu, a professor in the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Waterloo and Canada Research Chair in Nanotechnology Engineering, is the senior researcher on the team that was the first to find that photocatalysis — a chemical reaction that involves the absorption of light by nanoparticles — can completely eliminate naphthenic acids in oil sands wastewater, and within hours. Naphthenic acids pose a threat to ecology and human health. Water in tailing ponds left to biodegrade naturally in the environment still contains these contaminants decades later.

oil sands pond

With about a billion tonnes of water stored in ponds in Alberta, removing naphthenic acids is one of the largest environmental challenges in Canada,” said Tim Leshuk, a PhD candidate in chemical engineering at Waterloo and the leader of the study . “Conventional treatments people have tried either haven’t worked, or if they have worked, they’ve been far too impractical or expensive to solve the size of the problem.  Waterloo’s technology is the first step of what looks like a very practical and green treatment method.


Water To Drink From The Sea

University of Illinois (U. of I.) engineers have found an energy-efficient material for removing salt from seawater that could provide a rebuttal to poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s lament, “Water, water, every where, nor any drop to drink.” The material, a nanometer-thick sheet of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) riddled with tiny holes called nanopores, is specially designed to let high volumes of water through but keep salt and other contaminates out, a process called desalination. In a study published in the journal Nature Communications, the Illinois team modeled various thin-film membranes and found that MoS2 showed the greatest efficiency, filtering through up to 70 percent more water than graphene membranes.


Even though we have a lot of water on this planet, there is very little that is drinkable,” said study leader Narayana Aluru, a U. of I. professor ofmechanical science and engineering. “If we could find a low-cost, efficient way to purify sea water, we would be making good strides in solving the water crisis”.
Finding materials for efficient desalination has been a big issue, and I think this work lays the foundation for next-generation materials. These materials are efficient in terms of energy usage and fouling, which are issues that have plagued desalination technology for a long time,” said Aluru, who also is affiliated with the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology at the U. of I.

Most available desalination technologies rely on a process called reverse osmosis to push seawater through a thin plastic membrane to make fresh water. “Reverse osmosis is a very expensive process,” Aluru said. “It’s very energy intensive. A lot of power is required to do this process, and it’s not very efficient. In addition, the membranes fail because of clogging. So we’d like to make it cheaper and make the membranes more efficient so they don’t fail as often. We also don’t want to have to use a lot of pressure to get a high flow rate of water.


Nanoparticles Activated By Solar Energy Boil Water

Young researchers created a superconducting heat ink that functions as a solar heater. It heats water up to 68 degrees Celsius and is 40 percent cheaper than commercial inks.

hot shower 2

A pipe exposed to the sun reaches a temperature of 40 C°, if we add the superconducting ink the temperature increases 70 percent and reaches 68 C°,” says Sandra Casillas Bolaños, master at the Technological Institute of the Lagoon (ITL), in north of Mexico, and head of the project.

She explains that the ink acts as a boiler that contains nanoparticles activated by solar energy and increasing the temperature.


The ink is made of two layers, the first is an internal magnetic titanium nanoparticle, which is responsible for trapping the heat and the second is external and consists of a coating of tungsten (filament in light bulbs) which researchers transform into a nano salt and adhere with polyvinyl alcohol, to finish with a layer of copper.

Casillas Bolaños states that by a treatment called burnishing copper blackens in order that trap and retain heat inside the particles. “Thus the center is heated more intensely: first the titanium, then tungsten and finally the copper“.

The project has been developed for two years and the product is classified as an ink because it uses a series of solvents making it fast drying and with an odor similar to hair dye. The ink is applied on the surface of a conventional pipe that carries water and to potentiate the heat, students working on the project with professor Casillas Bolaños in the nonmetallic materials field, put two layers of PET bottles over the tubes in order to create a greenhouse effect and raise the temperature faster, as well as protect the ink from outdoor wear.

The technology has been implemented in some houses, where, by flowing for five meters water at 68 C° is obtained instantly, and even in cloudy weather the ink nicely captures the heat. Sandra Casillas adds that the ink was implemented in a major sports complex of the city to heat the pool, where two million cubic meters of water are heated from 26 to 37 C°. To achieve this, the researcher and her team placed tubes covered with ink on the edge of the indoor pool and a pump pulls the liquid from seven o’clock until the sun sets. As it flows, the water is heated and reaches the ideal temperature.

The ink is in the process of patenting and is intended to be market at 600 pesos a liter (about 40 dollars); however, for house piping only 150 pesos (10 dollars) are invested because very little is needed, says Casillas Bolaños.


3D Printing Applied To Nanotechnology = Revolution

It seems that the in the area of technology, the new age will belong a combination of nanotechnology and 3D printing, informed Professor Hari Kishan Sahajwani during a re-union meeting of 1966-68 batch of M.Sc.-physics of Kurukshetra University (India).
3D printing
Applying 3D printing concepts to nanotechnology are doing to revolutionize nanofabrication in terms of manufacturing speed, minimizing of waste and reduction of cost. In all kinds of human services, the manufacturing technologies will be dependent on the combination of nanotechnology and 3D printing,” said Sahjwani, who goes around the country to make presentations and delivering lectures on nanotechnology.

The UK scientists have developed nanoscale specks of semiconductor called ‘Quantum Dots‘ to restore vision lost due to damaged retinas. He added that this was indication how nanotechnology aided by 3D printing will bring new vistas in medical science and treatment of diseases.

quantum dotsQuantum dots are said to have the advantages that no external power source is needed for their functioning and can be coated with a bioactive material that causes them to become lodged in only specific tissues in the retina without any side effects.

He told that 3D-printing has been successfully used to generate replicas of bioimplants like living human cartilage and future seems be bright with advanced 3D printing techniques capable of creating nanoscale complex structures.

The efforts are on to develop the techniques for more precise and accurate 3D control of electro-spun nano-jets to take current nanofabrication technologies to a new height. With research and invention, sophisticated methods and precise methods to control the nano-jets will be able to realize rapid 3D printing usable for bioscaffolds and nanofilters to have inroads into all aspects of life, it is being felt.


Powered by plants your phone is charged in 2 hours

It’s a common problem across the world. Too many smartphones and not enough electrical sockets to charge them. But thanks to three engineering students from Chile, charging your device may soon be as easy as plugging it into your favorite household plant. The idea sprouted back in 2009 during a chaotic exam week. Desperate to charge their devices, the students stepped outside to the school garden to catch a breath of fresh air and quell their frustrations. That’s when they realized that the plants producing the oxygen they were breathing also produce energy.

biocircuit_buried_in_the_soilCLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE VIDEO
After that, we thought, why don’t they have a socket? Because there are so many plants and living things which have the potential to produce energy, why not?” asks Evelyn Aravena,  electrical engineering and industrial automation student at  Duoc Institute in Valparaiso (Chile).

The trio began prototyping a device they call E-Kaia. It’s a biocircuit buried in the soil that harnesses energy produced by plants during photosynthesis and converts it into electricity. The team explains that the device feeds off the natural energy cycle of a plant.  “There is a complete cycle of the plant and when making this cycle, we decided to incorporate into it, then we would not affect the plant’s growth. And the biocircuit makes an acquisition and transforms it into energy to later make charges of low consumption“, adds Camila Rupchich, also student at Duoc Insitute.

The device can fully charge a smartphone in under two hours. The team is currently fine tuning the biocircuit with the hopes of launching it commercially in late 2016.

Solar Roads Power Houses, Lights, Vehicles

For the first time ever, roads can produce electricity, while preserving their full capacity to bear vehicle traffic. The french company Colas, a world leader in transport infrastructure, in a partnership with the Institut national de l’énergie solaire (Ines), has developed Wattway, a new concept of photovoltaic road surfacing that is now market-ready. This innovation is a major technological breakthrough, a building block for cutting-edge projects involving intelligent roads and Smart Cities.

solar road
Extra thin and extremely sturdy, Wattway photovoltaic panels provide excellent grip and durable performance. They are directly applied to existing roads, highways, bike paths, parking areas, etc., without any civil engineering work and can safely bear vehicle traffic of all types, while producing electricity


To supply an average single home (not including heating), only 20 m² of Wattway are needed.

With 1km-long section of Wattway panels, it is possible to power the street lights for a town of 5,000 inhabitants, said Colas. The system is also seen as a first step in creating ‘intelligent roads’ that can manage traffic, gather maintenance information and even charge electric vehicles.

The photovoltaic road surfacing concept is said to be the first of its kind in the world. Wattway panels comprise photovoltaic cells embedded in a multilayer substrate. These cells collect solar energy via a very thin film of polycrystalline silicon that enables the production of electricity. On the underside of the panels, there is a connection to a lateral module containing the electrical safety components.

Wattway is able to provide power to street lights, signs, tramways, as well as housing, offices and so on, said the company.

Protected by two patents, the cutting-edge technique is a major breakthrough, as it provides the road with a new function: producing clean, renewable energy locally, in addition to a road’s conventional use.


Candle Soot Powers Lithium Ion Battery

A new study reveals that carbon from candle soot could be used to power the kind of lithium ion battery in plug-in hybrid electric cars. Researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology in Hyderabad, India claim that their findings could open up possibilities for using carbon in more powerful batteries, which could drive down the costs of portable power.

Lithium ion batteries are used to power a wide range of devices, including smartphones, digital cameras, electric cars and even aircraft. The batteries produce current through two electrically charged materials suspended in a liquid. Carbon, while used as one of the materials in smaller batteries, is considered unsuitable for bigger and more powerful batteries because of its structure, which cannot produce the required current density.

In the new study, published in the journal Electrochimica Acta, the researchers found that because of the shape and configuration of the tiny carbon nanoparticles, the carbon in candle soot could be used in bigger batteries. The team also said that their research introduces a more scalable approach to making batteries because the soot could be produced quickly and easily.


If you put water droplet on candle soot it rolls off – that’s an observation that’s been made in the last few years. The material candle soot is made of, carbon, also has electric potential. So why not use it as an electrode? We looked into it and saw it also shows some exceptional electrochemical properties, so we decided to test it further,” said Dr Chandra Sharma, one of the study’s authors.

Using a technique called cyclic charge-discharge, or CCD, the researchers analysed the effectiveness of soot as a conducting material to use in a battery. The technique shows how powerful the battery is based on the rate of charge or discharge: the higher the rate, the more powerful the battery. According to the study’s results, the candle soot carbon performed better at higher rates.

Sharma said the technology is not only efficient and cost-effective but also scalable, which could make battery production cheaper. One hybrid car would need approximately 10 kilograms of carbon soot, which would be deposited in about an hour using candles, Sharma explained.


Energy From Trees Can Power Everything

Researchers Emily Cranston and Igor Zhitomirsky from the Faculty of Engineering at McMaster University (Canada)  are turning trees into energy storage devices capable of powering everything from a smart watch to a hybrid car.

The scientists are using cellulose, an organic compound found in plants, bacteria, algae and trees, to build more efficient and longer-lasting energy storage devices or capacitors. This development paves the way toward the production of lightweight, flexible, and high-power electronics, such as wearable devices, portable power supplies and hybrid and electric vehicles.

treesUltimately the goal of this research is to find ways to power current and future technology with efficiency and in a sustainable way,” says Cranston, whose joint research was recently published in Advanced Materials.This means anticipating future technology needs and relying on materials that are more environmentally friendly and not based on depleting resources“.

Cellulose offers the advantages of high strength and flexibility for many advanced applications; of particular interest are nanocellulose-based materials. The work by Cranston, an assistant chemical engineering professor, and Zhitomirsky, a materials science and engineering professor, demonstrates an improved three-dimensional energy storage device constructed by trapping functional nanoparticles within the walls of a nanocellulose foam.


How To Spray Solar Cells

A new study out of St. Mary’s College of Maryland puts us closer to do-it-yourself spray-on solar cell technology—promising third-generation solar cells utilizing a nanocrystal ink deposition that could make traditional expensive silicon-based solar panels a thing of the past.

In a 2014 study, published in the journal Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, St. Mary’s College of Maryland energy expert Professor Troy Townsend introduced the first fully solution-processed all-inorganic photovoltaic technology.

spray-on solar cells
While progress on organic thin-film photovoltaics is rapidly growing, inorganic devices still hold the record for highest efficiencies which is in part due to their broad spectral absorption and excellent electronic properties. Considering the recorded higher efficiencies and lower cost per watt compared to organic devices, combined with the enhanced thermal and photo stability of bulk-scale inorganic materials, Townsend, in his 2014 study, focused on an all-inorganic based structure for fabrication of a top to bottom fully solution-based solar cell.

A major disadvantage compared to organics, however, is that inorganic materials are difficult to deposit from solution. To overcome this, Townsend synthesized materials on the nanoscale. Inorganic nanocrystals encased in an organic ligand shell are soluble in organic solvents and can be deposited from solution (i.e., spin-, dip-, spray-coat) whereas traditional inorganic materials require a high temperature vacuum chamber. The solar devices are fabricated from nanoscale particle inks of the light absorbing layers, cadmium telluride/cadmium selenide, and metallic inks above and below. This way, the entire electronic device can be built on non-conductive glass substrates using equipment you can find in your kitchen.

When you spray on these nanocrystals, you have to heat them to make them work,” explained Townsend, “but you can’t just heat the crystals by themselves, you have to add a sintering agent and that, for the last 40 years, has been cadmium chloride, a toxic salt used in commercial thin-film devices. No one has tested non-toxic alternatives for nanoscale ink devices, and we wanted to explore the mechanism of the sintering process to be able to implement safer salts.”


Ocean: NanoMotors Remove Ninety Percent Of The Carbon Dioxide

Machines that are much smaller than the width of a human hair could one day help clean up carbon dioxide pollution in the oceans. Nanoengineers at the University of California, San Diego have designed enzyme-functionalized micromotors that rapidly zoom around in water, remove carbon dioxide and convert it into a usable solid form. The proof of concept study represents a promising route to mitigate the buildup of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas in the environment, said researchers.

nanomotorsNanoengineers have invented tiny tube-shaped micromotors that zoom around in water and efficiently remove carbon dioxide. The surfaces of the micromotors are functionalized with the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which enables the motors to help rapidly convert carbon dioxide to calcium carbonate

We’re excited about the possibility of using these micromotors to combat ocean acidification and global warming,” said Virendra V. Singh, a postdoctoral scientist in Wang’s research group and a co-first author of this study. In their experiments, nanoengineers demonstrated that the micromotors rapidly decarbonated water solutions that were saturated with carbon dioxide. Within five minutes, the micromotors removed 90 percent of the carbon dioxide from a solution of deionized water. The micromotors were just as effective in a sea water solution and removed 88 percent of the carbon dioxide in the same timeframe.

In the future, we could potentially use these micromotors as part of a water treatment system, like a water decarbonation plant,” said Kevin Kaufmann, an undergraduate researcher in Wang’s lab and a co-author of the study.

The team, led by nanoengineering professor Joseph Wang, has published the work this month in the journal Angewandte Chemie.


How To Trap Greenhouse Gases

Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas tend to collect within Earth’s atmosphere as “greenhouse gases” that are blamed for escalating global warming.

So researchers around the globe are on a quest for materials capable of capturing and storing greenhouse gases. This shared goal led researchers at Technische Universität Darmstadt in Germany and the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur to team up to explore the feasibility of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) to trap and store two greenhouse gases in particular: carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). As the team reports in The Journal of Chemical Physics, from AIP Publishing, they discovered that gas adsorption in VACNTs can be influenced by adjusting the morphological parameters of the carbon nanotube thickness, the distance between nanotubes, and their height.

Carbon nanotubes against greenhouse gases
Snapshots of CO2 adsorption in double-walled carbon nanotube arrays (with an inner tube diameter of 2r=3 nanometers and various inter-tube distance at T=303 K and p=1 bar)


These parameters are fundamental for ‘tuning’ the hierarchical pore structure of the VACNTs,” explained Mahshid Rahimi and Deepu Babu, the paper’s lead authors and doctoral students in theoretical physical chemistry and inorganic chemistry at the Technische Universität Darmstadt. “This hierarchy effect is a crucial factor for getting high-adsorption capacities as well as mass transport into the nanostructure. Surprisingly, from theory and by experiment, we found that the distance between nanotubes plays a much larger role in gas adsorption than the tube diameter does.


Nano Is eco-friendly

The root of the humble sugar beet is used to make much of the world’s sugar. But the remainder of the plant is destroyed or made into cheap animal feed. But now Scottish scientists are transforming the sugar byproduct into a wonder material named Curran.


The feed stock that we use is from a sidestream of the sugar producing industry. It’s the waste pulp that comes after they’re removed the sugar, which is then pressed and dried into pellets for ease of shipment. So you can see the bottom of this stick here I’ve got the dried pellets…..but obviously we want to take this material and turn it into something that has a lot more value“,  says  Dr. David Hepworth, co-founder of the company Cellucomp (UK).

In its factory near Edinburgh, Cellucomp is doing just that. Having originally demonstrated Curran‘s strength by using it to make fishing rods, the firm turned its attention to selling it in granule form, for use in industrial liquids and composites. Its creators say Curran is eco-friendly, twice as strong as carbon fibre, with impressive viscosity. Decorating guru Cait Whitson worked with Cellucomp to create her new range of Whitson paint.,

One of the things I wanted to talk about was durability and one of the things that excited me about the Curran product was that a very small amount of Curran adds a significant amount of durability to the paint product. Secondly was the rheology, about how the paint flowed from the brush“, says Cait Whitson, founder of Whitson Paint. He adds that Curran makes paint scrub-resistant, avoids unsightly brush marks, and helps prevent cracking. With the paint additive business worth a billion dollars, Cellucomp could be sitting on a goldmine. It wants to expand production fivefold within three years.

There are all kinds of potential applications that Curran can be used for. It can go into things like paint and coatings, it can go into concrete, cosmetics. It can even be used for drilling fluids, be an additive to go into your food, and go into composites. So you can imagine one day airplane wings made from Curran“, concludes Christian Kemp-Griffin, CEO of Cellucomp. All of which paints a very bright future for the company..