Posts belonging to Category Health



Solar Energy Transforms Salt Water Into Fresh Drinking Water

A federally funded research effort to revolutionize water treatment has yielded an off-grid technology that uses energy from sunlight alone to turn salt water into fresh drinking water. The desalination system, which uses a combination of membrane distillation technology and light-harvesting nanophotonics, is the first major innovation from the Center for Nanotechnology Enabled Water Treatment (NEWT), a multi-institutional engineering research center based at Rice University.

NEWT’s “nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation” technology, or NESMD, combines tried-and-true water treatment methods with cutting-edge nanotechnology that converts sunlight to heat. More than 18,000 desalination plants operate in 150 countries, but NEWT’s desalination technology is unlike any other used today.

Direct solar desalination could be a game changer for some of the estimated 1 billion people who lack access to clean drinking water,” said Rice scientist and water treatment expert Qilin Li, a corresponding author on the study. “This off-grid technology is capable of providing sufficient clean water for family use in a compact footprint, and it can be scaled up to provide water for larger communities.”

The technology is described online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Source: http://news.rice.edu/

Artificial Intelligence At The Hospital

Diagnosing cancer is a slow and laborious process. Here researchers at University Hospital Zurich painstakingly make up biopsy slides – up to 50 for each patient – for the pathologist to examine for signs of prostate cancer. A pathologist takes around an hour and a half per patient – a task IBMs Watson supercomputer is now doing in fractions of a second.

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“If the pathologist becomes faster by using such a system I think it will pay off. Because my time is also worth something. If I sit here one and a half hours looking at slides, screening all these slides, instead of just signing out the two or three positive ones, and taking into account that there may be a .1 error rate, percent error rate. this will pay off, because I can do in one and a half hours at the end five patients,” says Dr. Peter Wild, University Hospital Zürich.

The hospital’s archive of biopsy images is being slowly fed into Watson – a process that will take years. But maybe one day pathologists won’t have to view slides through a microscope at all. Diagnosis is not the only area benefiting from AI. The technology is helping this University of Sheffield team design a new drug that could slow down the progress of motor neurone disease. A system built by British start-up BenevolentAI is identifying new areas for further exploration far faster than a person could ever hope to.

Benevolent basically uses their artificial intelligence system to scan the whole medical and biomedical literature. It’s not really easy for us to stay on top of millions of publications that come out every year. So they can interrogate that information, using artificial intelligence and come up with ideas for new drugs that might be used in a completely different disease, but may be applicable on motor neurone disease. So that’s the real benefit in their system, the kind of novel ideas that they come up with,” explains Dr. Richard Mead, Sitran, University of Sheffield. BenevolentAI has raised one hundred million dollars in investment to develop its AI system, and help revolutionise the pharmaceutical industry.

Source: http://www.reuters.com/

Skin Regeneration

A small U.S. biotech has successfully regenerated skin and stimulated hair growth in pigs with burns and abrasions, paving the way for a scientific breakthrough that could lead to the regeneration of fully functional human skinSalt Lake City-based PolarityTE Inc‘s patented approach to tissue engineering is designed to use a patient’s own healthy tissue to re-grow human skin for the treatment of burns and wounds. Despite recent advances in reconstructive surgery, plastic surgeons cannot give burn victims what they require the most — their skin. Current approaches to treat serious burns are “severely limited” in their effectiveness and in some cases, are rather expensive, PolarityTE‘s founder and CEO Denver Lough said in an interview.

Epicel, a skin graft widely used in burn units that is sold by Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Vericel Corp, does not result in fully thick and functional skin — which is PolarityTE‘s objective.

“If clinically successful, the PolarityTE platform could deliver the first scientific breakthrough in wound healing and reconstructive surgery in nearly half a century,” said Lough, who served as senior plastic surgery resident at Johns Hopkins Hospital before creating PolarityTE last year.

“PolarityTE expects to begin a human trial later this year and the cell therapy could hit the market 12 to 18 months thereafter”.

PolarityTE conducted its pre-clinical study on wounded pigs at an animal facility in Utah. The use of therapy resulted in scar-less healing, growth of hair follicles, complete wound coverage and the progressive regeneration of all skin layers, the company said. As pig skin is more complex and robust than human skin, successful swine data is typically seen as a precursor to effectiveness in human trials.

The technology also has the potential to develop fully-functional tissues, including bone, muscle, cartilage and the liver, PolarityTE said.

Source: http://www.polarityte.com/
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http://www.reuters.com/

A Single Drop Of Blood To Test Agressive Prostate Cancer

A new diagnostic developed by Alberta scientists will allow men to bypass painful biopsies to test for aggressive prostate cancer. The test incorporates a unique nanotechnology platform to make the diagnostic using only a single drop of blood, and is significantly more accurate than current screening methods.

The Extracellular Vesicle Fingerprint Predictive Score (EV-FPS) test uses machine learning to combine information from millions of cancer cell nanoparticles in the blood to recognize the unique fingerprint of aggressive cancer. The diagnostic, developed by members of the Alberta Prostate Cancer Research Initiative (APCaRI), was evaluated in a group of 377 Albertan men who were referred to their urologist with suspected prostate cancer. It was found that EV-FPS correctly identified men with aggressive prostate cancer 40 percent more accurately than the most common test—Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) blood test—in wide use today.

Higher sensitivity means that our test will miss fewer aggressive cancers,” said John Lewis, the Alberta Cancer Foundation‘s Frank and Carla Sojonky Chair of Prostate Cancer Research at the University of Alberta. “For this kind of test you want the sensitivity to be as high as possible because you don’t want to miss a single cancer that should be treated.”

According to the team, current tests such as the PSA and digital rectal exam (DRE) often lead to unneeded biopsies. Lewis says more than 50 per cent of men who undergo biopsy do not have prostate cancer, yet suffer the pain and side effects of the procedure such as infection or sepsis. Less than 20 per cent of men who receive a are diagnosed with the aggressive form of prostate cancer that could most benefit from treatment.

It’s estimated that successful implementation of the EV-FPS test could eventually eliminate up to 600-thousand unnecessary biopsies, 24-thousand hospitalizations and up to 50 per cent of unnecessary treatments for prostate each year in North America alone. Beyond cost savings to the health care system, the researchers say the diagnostic test will have a dramatic impact on the health care experience and quality of life for men and their families.

Compared to elevated total PSA alone, the EV-FPS test can more accurately predict the result of prostate biopsy in previously unscreened men,” said Adrian Fairey, urologist at the Northern Alberta Urology Centre and member of APCaRI. “This information can be used by clinicians to determine which men should be advised to undergo immediate prostate biopsy and which men should be advised to defer and continue screening.”

Source:  https://medicalxpress.com/

Powerful Anti-Aging Cream Using Nanotechnology

Wrinkle-smoothing hyaluronic acid can now be introduced into the skin without injections, thanks to an Israeli research team that spent years developing a nanotechnology for this purpose. Facial wrinkles, lines and sagging result from the body’s gradual loss of its ability to produce hyaluronic acid. In the past, treatments of hyaluronic acid couldn’t get into the skin’s deepest layers except by injection or in a powder form that must be mixed with water and therefore loses its potency.

That problem was solved by a research team headed by Prof. Rachel Lubart and Prof. Aharon Gedanken from the departments of chemistry and physics and Bar-Ilan University’s Institute for Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials (BINA). The Israeli scientists achieved this breakthrough by micronizingbreaking down its particles to the size of a micronhyaluronic acid. Based on this development, Israeli cosmetic pharmaceuticals pioneer Hava Zingboim has created Prophecy, the first-ever cream formula that allows hyaluronic acid to penetrate into the deeper skin layers.

Once they reach nano size, the hyaluronic acid molecules are transferred into the formula, which enables them to remain nano-sized throughout the process. The effect of the micronized hyaluronic acid applied to the skin is identical to the effect achieved when injecting hyaluronic acid into the skin, with the benefits of enhanced skin texture and a younger look.
According to a university statement, this is the only technology in the world capable of creating small molecules that remain small even when applied to the skin.

Source: https://www.israel21c.org/
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Startup Promises Immortality Through AI, Nanotechnology, and Cloning

One of the things humans have plotted for centuries is escaping death, with little to show for it, until now. One startup called Humai has a plan to make immortality a reality. The CEO, Josh Bocanegra says when the time comes and all the necessary advancements are in place, we’ll be able to freeze your brain, create a new, artificial body, repair any damage to your brain, and transfer it into your new body. This process could then be repeated in perpetuityHUMAI stands for: Human Resurrection through Artificial Intelligence. The technology to accomplish this isn’t here now, but on the horizon. Bocanegra says they’ll reach this Promethean feat within 30 years. 2045 is currently their target date. So how do they plan to do it?

We’re using artificial intelligence and nanotechnology to store data of conversational styles, behavioral patterns, thought processes and information about how your body functions from the inside-out. This data will be coded into multiple sensor technologies, which will be built into an artificial body with the brain of a deceased human, explains the website.

Source: https://www.facebook.com/humaitech/
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http://bigthink.com/

Legally Blind People Can See With A New Kind Of Glasses

A Canadian company based in Toronto has suceeded to build a kind of Google glass that is able to give back full sight to legally blind people.  The eSight is an augmented reality headset that houses a high-speed, high-definition camera that captures everything the user is looking at.

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Algorithms enhance the video feed and display it on two, OLED screens in front of the user’s eyes. Full color video images are clearly seen by the eSight user with unprecedented visual clarity and virtually no lag. With eSight’s patented Bioptic Tilt capability, users can adjust the device to the precise position that, for them, presents the best view of the video while maximizing side peripheral vision. This ensures a user’s balance and prevents nausea – common problems with other immersive technologies. A blind individual can use both of their hands while they use eSight to see. It is lightweight, worn comfortably around the eyes and designed for various environments and for use throughout the day.

eSight is a comprehensive customized medical device that can replace all the many single-task assistive devices that are currently available but do not provide actual sight (e.g. white canes, magnifying devices, service animals, Braille machines, CCTV scanners, text-to-speech software). It allows a user to instantly auto-focus between short-range vision (reading a book or text on a smartphone) to mid-range vision (seeing faces or watching TV) to long-range vision (looking down a hallway or outsidea window). It is the only device for the legally blind that enables mobility without causing issues of imbalance or nausea (common with other immersive options). A legally blind individual can use eSight not just to see while sitting down but while being independently mobile (e.g. walking, exercising, commuting, travelling, etc).

According to The Wall Street Journal, the company is taking advantages of recent improvements in technology from VR headsets and smartphones that have trickled down to improve the latest version of the eSight. So far, the company has sold roughly a thousand units, but at $10,000 apiece, they’re not cheap (and most insurances apparently don’t cover the product), although eSight’s chief executive Brian Mech notes to the WSJ that getting devices to users is “a battle we are starting to wage.”

Source: https://www.esighteyewear.com/

Asthma: Graphene-Based Sensor Improves Treatment

Scientists from Rutgers University have created a graphene-based sensor that could lead to earlier detection of looming asthma attacks and improve the management of asthma and other respiratory diseases, preventing hospitalizations and deaths.

The sensor paves the way for the development of devices – possibly resembling fitness trackers like the Fitbit – which people could wear and then know when and at what dosage to take their medication.


Exhaled breath condensate (tiny droplets of liquid) are rapidly analyzed by a graphene-based nanoelectronic sensor that detects nitrite, a key inflammatory marker in the inner lining of the respiratory airway.

Our vision is to develop a device that someone with asthma or another respiratory disease can wear around their neck or on their wrist and blow into it periodically to predict the onset of an asthma attack or other problems,” said Mehdi Javanmard, an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. “It advances the field of personalized and precision medicine.

Javanmard and a diverse team of RutgersNew Brunswick experts describe their invention in a study published online today in the journal Microsystems & Nanoengineering.

Asthma, which causes inflammation of the airway and obstructs air flow, affects about 300 million people worldwide. About 17.7 million adults and 6.3 million children in the United States were diagnosed with asthma in 2014. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Other serious lung ailments include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which encompasses emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

Measuring biomarkers in exhaled breath condensatetiny liquid droplets discharged during breathing – can contribute to understanding asthma at the molecular level and lead to targeted treatment and better disease management. The Rutgers researchers’ miniaturized electrochemical sensor accurately measures nitrite in exhaled breath condensate using reduced graphene oxide. Reduced graphene oxide resists corrosion, has superior electrical properties and is very accurate in detecting biomarkers.

Source: http://news.rutgers.edu/

Blood Cells Deliver Drugs To Kill Cancer

For the first time, WSU researchers have demonstrated a way to deliver a drug to a tumor by attaching it to a blood cell. The innovation could let doctors target tumors with anticancer drugs that might otherwise damage healthy tissues.

To develop the treatment, a team led by Zhenjia Wang, an assistant professor of pharmaceutical sciences, worked at the microscopic scale using a nanotherapeutic particle so small that 1,000 of them would fit across the width of a hair. By attaching a nanoscale particle to an infection-fighting white blood cell, the team showed they can get a drug past the armor of blood vessels that typically shield a tumor. This has been a major challenge in nanotechnology drug delivery.

Working with colleagues in Spokane and China, Wang implanted a tumor on the flank of a mouse commonly chosen as a model for human diseases. The tumor was exposed to near-infrared light, causing an inflammation that released proteins to attract white blood cells, called neutrophils, into the tumor. The researchers then injected the mouse with gold nanoparticles treated with antibodies that mediate the union of the nanoparticles and neutrophils. When the tumor was exposed to infrared light, the light’s interaction with the gold nanoparticles produced heat that killed the tumor cells, Wang said. In the future, therapists could attach an anticancer drug like doxorubicin to the nanoparticle. This could let them deliver the drug directly to the tumor and avoid damaging nearby tissues, Wang said.

We have developed a new approach to deliver therapeutics into tumors using the white blood cells of our body,” Wang said. “This will be applied to deliver many anticancer drugs, such as doxorubicin, and we hope that it could increase the efficacy of cancer therapies compared to other delivery systems.”

Wang and Chu’s colleagues on the research are postdoctoral researcher Dafeng Chu, Ph.D. student Xinyue Dong, Jingkai Gu of Jilin University and Jingkai Gu of the University of Macau.

The researchers reported on the technique in the latest issue of the journal Advanced Materials.

Source: https://news.wsu.edu/

The Rise Of The Cyborg

Researchers from UCLA and the University of Connecticut have designed a new biofriendly energy storage system called a biological supercapacitor, which operates using charged particles, or ions, from fluids in the human body. The device is harmless to the body’s biological systems, and it could lead to longer-lasting cardiac pacemakers and other implantable medical devices like artificial heart.

The UCLA team was led by Richard Kaner, a distinguished professor of chemistry and biochemistry, and of materials science and engineering, and the Connecticut researchers were led by James Rusling, a professor of chemistry and cell biology. A paper about their design was published this week in the journal Advanced Energy Materials.

Pacemakers — which help regulate abnormal heart rhythms — and other implantable devices have saved countless lives. But they’re powered by traditional batteries that eventually run out of power and must be replaced, meaning another painful surgery and the accompanying risk of infection. In addition, batteries contain toxic materials that could endanger the patient if they leak.

The researchers propose storing energy in those devices without a battery. The supercapacitor they invented charges using electrolytes from biological fluids like blood serum and urine, and it would work with another device called an energy harvester, which converts heat and motion from the human body into electricity — in much the same way that self-winding watches are powered by the wearer’s body movements. That electricity is then captured by the supercapacitor.

Combining energy harvesters with supercapacitors can provide endless power for lifelong implantable devices that may never need to be replaced,” said Maher El-Kady, a UCLA postdoctoral researcher and a co-author of the study.

Source: http://newsroom.ucla.edu/

College Student 3D Prints His Own Braces

Amos Dudley wears his skills in his smile. The digital design major has been straightening his top teeth for the past 16 weeks using clear braces he made himself.

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 “I’m still wearing the last one,” said Dudley . “The last one” refers to the twelfth and final straightening tray in his self-designed treatment. Dudley said he had braces when he was in junior high, but he didn’t wear his retainer as much as he should have, and his teeth shifted. Over time, Dudley discovered that he wasn’t smiling as much because he wasn’t happy with the way his teeth looked.

Name brand options for clear braces can cost up to $8,000, according to companies like Invisalign, Damon, and ClearCorrect. But the 24-year-old wanted to save money, so he found a way to manufacture his own for less than $60. The total cost is so low because he only had to pay for materials used to make the models of his teeth and the retainers. Even though he built his own 3D printer at home, he opted to use a high-end and more precise 3D printer at his school, New Jersey Institute of Technology.

He used NJIT’s equipment to scan and print models of his teeth, and mold non-toxic plastic around them to form the set of 12 clear braces. Dudley determined out how far he needed to move his teeth to correct the misalignment problems. Then divided it by the maximum recommended distance a tooth should travel to determine the design for each alignment tray. Orthodontists use a similar process. Researching the materials he needed and figuring out how teeth move was the most difficult part of Dudley’s orthodontic adventure. The most exciting was when he finally put the first aligner in his mouth. “It was very obvious which tooth [the tray] was putting pressure on,” he said. “I was sort of worried about accumulated error, but that wasn’t the case so that was a pretty glorious moment.

Source: http://money.cnn.com/

Nanoparticle Shrinks Breast Tumor, Prevent Recurrence

A Mayo Clinic research team has developed a new type of cancer-fighting nanoparticle aimed at shrinking breast cancer tumors, while also preventing recurrence of the disease. A mice that received an injection with the nanoparticle showed a 70 to 80 percent reduction in tumor size. Most significantly, mice treated with these nanoparticles showed resistance to future tumor recurrence, even when exposed to cancer cells a month later.

The results show that the newly designed nanoparticle produced potent anti-tumor immune responses to HER2-positive breast cancers. Breast cancers with higher levels of HER2 protein are known to grow aggressively and spread more quickly than those without the mutation.

In this proof-of-concept study, we were astounded to find that the animals treated with these nanoparticles showed a lasting anti-cancer effect,” says Betty Y.S. Kim, M.D., Ph.D., principal investigator, and a neurosurgeon and neuroscientist who specializes in brain tumors at Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus. “Unlike existing cancer immunotherapies that target only a portion of the immune system, our custom-designed nanomaterials actively engage the entire immune system to kill cancer cells, prompting the body to create its own memory system to minimize tumor recurrence. These nanomedicines can be expanded to target different types of cancer and other human diseases, including neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.”

Dr. Kim’s team developed the nanoparticle, which she has named “Multivalent Bi-specific Nano-Bioconjugate Engager,” a patented technology with Mayo Clinic Ventures, a commercialization arm of Mayo Clinic.

The findings have been published in Nature Nanotechnology.

Source: https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/