Posts belonging to Category Materials



Sophia The Robot Says: ‘I have feelings too’

Until recently, the most famous thing that Sophia the robot had ever done was beat Jimmy Fallon a little too easily in a nationally televised game of rock-paper-scissors.

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But now, the advanced artificial intelligence robot — which looks like Audrey Hepburn, mimics human expressions and may be the grandmother of robots that solve the world’s most complex problems — has a new feather in her cap:

Citizenship.

The kingdom of Saudi Arabia officially granted citizenship to the humanoid robot last week during a program at the Future Investment Initiative, a summit that links deep-pocketed Saudis with inventors hoping to shape the future.

Sophia’s recognition made international headlines — and sparked an outcry against a country with a shoddy human rights record that has been accused of making women second-class citizens.

Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/

Smart Paper Conducts Electricity, Detects Water

In cities and large-scale manufacturing plants, a water leak in a complicated network of pipes can take tremendous time and effort to detect, as technicians must disassemble many pieces to locate the problem. The American Water Works Association indicates that nearly a quarter-million water line breaks occur each year in the U.S., costing public water utilities about $2.8 billion annually.

A University of Washington (UW) team wants to simplify the process for discovering detrimental leaks by developing “smartpaper that can sense the presence of water. The paper, laced with conductive nanomaterials, can be employed as a switch, turning on or off an LED light or an alarm system indicating the absence or presence of water.

Water sensing is very challenging to do due to the polar nature of water, and what is used now is very expensive and not practical to implement,” said lead author Anthony Dichiara, a UW assistant professor of bioresource science and engineering in the School of Environment and Forest Sciences. “That led to the reason to pursue this work.”

Along with Dichiara, a team of UW undergraduate students in the Bioresource Science and Engineering program successfully embedded nanomaterials in paper that can conduct electricity and sense the presence of water. Starting with pulp, they manipulated the wood fibers and carefully mixed in nanomaterials using a standard process for papermaking, but never before used to make sensing papers.

Discovering that the paper could detect the presence of water came by way of a fortuitous accident. Water droplets fell onto the conductive paper the team had created, causing the LED light indicating conductivity to turn off. Though at first they thought they had ruined the paper, the researchers realized they had instead created a paper that was sensitive to water.
The researchers described their discovery in a paper appearing in the Journal of Materials Chemistry A.

Source: http://www.washington.edu/

AI-controlled Greenhouse Uses 90 Percent Less Water To Produce Salads

Californian startup  Iron Ox runs an indoor farm complete with a few hundred plants—and two robot farmers. Instead of using technology to grow genetically modified food, a former Google engineer partnered with one of his friends who had a PhD in robotics to open a technology-based farm where they plant, seed, and grow heads of lettuce.

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Iron Ox’s goal is to provide quality produce to everyone without a premium price. According to Natural Society the average head of lettuce travels 2,055 miles from farm to market, which is why fresh lettuce is often so expensive. Currently, Iron Ox only provides produce to restaurants and grocery stores in the Bay Area of California, which is why after a daily harvest, their products are hours fresh as opposed to shipped in. The company aims to open greenhouses near other major cities, guaranteeing same-day delivery from their trucks at a fraction of the price of the current supply chain.

So why the robots? Lettuce has always been a testing ground for farming innovation, from early greenhouses to closed aquaponic ecosystems. According to Iron Ox, their AI-controlled greenhouse uses 90 percent less water than traditional farms, and because of the technology, each head of lettuce receives intimate individualized attention that is not realistic with human labor. Iron Ox also says that because they grow their products indoors with no pesticides, they don’t have to worry about typical farming issues like stray animals eating their product.

Iron Ox has yet to launch a fully-functioning automated greenhouse, but hope to build their first by the end of 2017. However, Iron Ox is not the only company to experiment with robot farming. Spread, a sustainable farming organization, broke ground on their first techno-farm, which will be fully automated and operated by robots growing lettuce, in May. They have plans to expand to the Middle East next and then continue growing.

Does this mean the future of produce is automation? Not exactly. Agriculture is complex business, and not all produce can be greenhouse-grown as efficiently and effectively as lettuce. But it’s one more reason for farmers to be aware of how the robots are coming for us all.

Source: https://www.saveur.com/

Acupuncture And Nanotechnology Married To Cure Cancer

DGIST (Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology) in South Korea announced that Professor Su-Il In’s research team from the department of Energy Science and Engineering has presented the possibility of cancer treatment, including colorectal cancer, using acupuncture needles that employ nanotechnology for the first time in the world.

The research team of Professor Su-Il In, through joint research with Dr. Eunjoo Kim of Companion Diagnostics & Medical Technology Research Group at DGIST and Professor Bong-Hyo Lee’s research team from the College of Oriental Medicine at Daegu Haany University, has published a study showing that the molecular biologic indicators related to anticancer effects are changed only by the treatment of acupuncture, which is widely used in oriental medicine.

In oriental medicine, treatment using acupuncture needles has been commonly practiced for thousands of years in the fields of treating musculoskeletal disorders, pain relief, and addiction relief. Recently, it has emerged as a promising treatment for brain diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, nausea, and vomiting, and studies are under way to use acupuncture to treat severe diseases.

SURFACE IMAGES OF (A) CONVENTIONAL ACUPUNCTURE NEEDLE (CN) AND, (B) THE NANOPOROUS ACUPUNCTURE NEEDLE (PN) WITH ITS (C AND D) HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES

Not only that, Professor In’s team discovered that acupuncture needles can be used for cancer treatment which is difficult to treat in modern medicine. In this study, the researchers developed nanoporous needles with microscopic holes in the surface of the needles ranging from nanopores (nm = one billionth of a meter) to micrometers (μm = one millionth of a meter) by applying relatively simple electrochemical nanotechnology. By increasing the surface area of the needle by a factor of ten, the nanoporous needles doubled the electrophysiological signal generation function by needle stimulus.

As a result of AOM administration in rats, the rats receiving periodic acupuncture treatment with nanoporous needles were found to have a much lower incidence of abnormal vascular clusters as a precursor to colorectal cancer in the initiation stage than those in the control group.

Source: https://www.eurekalert.org/

Thin Films Power Electronics Mixed In Fabrics

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reported significant advances in the thermoelectric performance of organic semiconductors based on carbon nanotube thin films that could be integrated into fabrics to convert waste heat into electricity or serve as a small power source.

The research demonstrates significant potential for semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as the primary material for efficient thermoelectric generators, rather than being used as a component in a “compositethermoelectric material containing, for example, carbon nanotubes and a polymer. The discovery is outlined in the new Energy & Environmental Science paper, Large n- and p-type thermoelectric power factors from doped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube thin films.

There are some inherent advantages to doing things this way,” said Jeffrey Blackburn, a senior scientist in NREL’s Chemical and Materials Science and Technology center and co-lead author of the paper with Andrew Ferguson. These advantages include the promise of solution-processed semiconductors that are lightweight and flexible and inexpensive to manufacture. Other NREL authors are Bradley MacLeod, Rachelle Ihly, Zbyslaw Owczarczyk, and Katherine Hurst. The NREL authors also teamed with collaborators from the University of Denver and partners at International Thermodyne, Inc., based in Charlotte, N.C.

Ferguson, also a senior scientist in the Chemical and Materials Science and Technology center, said the introduction of SWCNT into fabrics could serve an important function for “wearable” personal electronics. By capturing body heat and converting it into electricity, the semiconductor could power portable electronics or sensors embedded in clothing.

Source: https://www.nrel.gov/

Invisible Glass

If you have ever watched television in anything but total darkness, used a computer while sitting underneath overhead lighting or near a window, or taken a photo outside on a sunny day with your smartphone, you have experienced a major nuisance of modern display screens: glare. Most of today’s electronics devices are equipped with glass or plastic covers for protection against dust, moisture, and other environmental contaminants, but light reflection from these surfaces can make information displayed on the screens difficult to see. Now, scientists at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) — a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory — have demonstrated a method for reducing the surface reflections from glass surfaces to nearly zero by etching tiny nanoscale features into them.

Whenever light encounters an abrupt change in refractive index (how much a ray of light bends as it crosses from one material to another, such as between air and glass), a portion of the light is reflected. The nanoscale features have the effect of making the refractive index change gradually from that of air to that of glass, thereby avoiding reflections. The ultra-transparent nanotextured glass is antireflective over a broad wavelength range (the entire visible and near-infrared spectrum) and across a wide range of viewing angles. Reflections are reduced so much that the glass essentially becomes invisible.

This “invisible glass” could do more than improve the user experience for consumer electronic displays. It could enhance the energy-conversion efficiency of solar cells by minimizing the amount of sunlight lost to refection. It could also be a promising alternative to the damage-prone antireflective coatings conventionally used in lasers that emit powerful pulses of light, such as those applied to the manufacture of medical devices and aerospace components.

We’re excited about the possibilities,” said CFN Director Charles Black, corresponding author on the paper published online on October 30 in Applied Physics Letters. “Not only is the performance of these nanostructured materials extremely high, but we’re also implementing ideas from nanoscience in a manner that we believe is conducive to large-scale manufacturing.”

Our role in the CFN is to demonstrate how nanoscience can facilitate the design of new materials with improved properties,” concluded Black. “This work is a great example of that–we’d love to find a partner to help advance these remarkable materials toward technology.”

Source: https://www.eurekalert.org/

Robots Soon Will Share Our Private And Sex Life

Sex robot inventor Sergi Santos isn’t just changing how men pleasure themselves — he’s potentially changing society as we know it. The Spanish scientist believes it’s only a matter of time before human-and-robot marriage is commonplace, and he’s even hatched a plan for how he can have a baby with his mechanical temptress SamanthaSamantha is Santos’ 100-pound sex robot that boasts eight different programs and the ability to make “realistic” orgasm sounds.

Santos said he believes that in the next couple of decades, we won’t just be seeing these dolls hidden in a man’s closet or under the bed — they’ll be walking down the aisle to say “I do” to their human lovers.

Speaking from his home laboratory in Barcelona (Spain), he said: “People might look at Samantha as a weird thing you read about.” “But before they know it, these robots will be doing their jobs, and marrying their children, their grandchildren, and their friends.” “They need to remember that just a few years ago, mobile phones were seen as a non-essential item in society, but now we can’t function without them.” And Santos claims he will soon be able to have a baby with Samantha. He explained: “I can make them have a baby. It’s not so difficult. I would love to have a child with a robot.” His plan involves using thebrain” he has created for Samantha but upgrading it so it is functioning at full capability.

Source: http://nypost.com/
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Editing Genes In Human Embryos

Two new CRISPR tools overcome the scariest parts of gene editing.The ability to edit RNA and individual DNA base pairs will make gene editing much more precise. Several years ago, scientists discovered a technique known as CRISPR/Cas9, which allowed them to edit DNA more efficiently than ever before.
Since then, CRISPR science has exploded; it’s become one of the most exciting and fast-moving areas of research, transforming everything from medicine to agriculture and energy. In 2017 alone, more than 14,000 CRISPR studies were published.

But here’s the thing: CRISPR, while a major leap forward in gene editing, can still be a blunt instrument. There have been problems with CRISPR modifying unintended gene targets and making worrisome, and permanent, edits to an organism’s genome. These changes could be passed down through generations, which has raised the stakes of CRISPR experiments — and the twin specters of “designer babies” and genetic performance enhancers — particularly when it comes to editing genes in human embryos.
So while CRISPR science is advancing quickly, scientists are still very much in the throes of tweaking and refining their toolkit. And on Wednesday, researchers at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard launched a coordinated blitz with two big reports that move CRISPR in that safer and more precise direction.
In a paper published in Science, researchers described an entirely new CRISPR-based gene editing tool that targets RNA, DNA’s sister, allowing for transient changes to genetic material. In Nature, scientists described how a more refined type of CRISPR gene editing can alter a single bit of DNA without cutting it — increasing the tool’s precision and efficiency.

The first paper, out Wednesday in Science, describes a new gene editing system. This one, from researchers at MIT and Harvard, focuses on tweaking human RNA instead of DNA.

Our cells contain chromosomes made up of chemical strands called DNA, which carry genetic information. Those genes have recipes for proteins that lead to a bunch of different traits. But to carry out the instructions in any one recipe, DNA needs another type of genetic material called RNA to get involved.

RNA is ephemeral: It acts like a middleman, or a messenger. For a gene to become a protein, that gene has to be transcribed into RNA in the cell, and the RNA is then read to make the protein. If the DNA is permanent — the family recipe book passed down through generations — the RNA is like your aunt’s scribbled-out recipe on a Post-It note, turning up only when it’s needed and disappearing again.

With the CRISPR/Cas9 system, researchers are focused on editing DNA. (For more on how that system works, read this Vox explainer.) But the new Science paper describes a novel gene editing tool called REPAIR that’s focused on using a different enzyme, Cas13, to edit that transient genetic material, the RNA, in cells. REPAIR can target specific RNA letters, or nucleosides, that are involved in single-base changes that regularly cause disease in humans.

This is hugely appealing for one big reason: With CRISPR/Cas9, the changes to the genome, or the cell’s recipe book, are permanent. You can’t undo them. With REPAIR, since researchers can target single bits of ephemeral RNA, the changes they make are transient, even reversible. So this system could fix genetic mutations without actually touching the genome (like throwing away your aunt’s Post-It note recipe without adding it to the family recipe book).

Source: https://www.vox.com/

Self-regulating Nanoparticles Treat Cancer

Scientists from the University of Surrey have developed ‘intelligentnanoparticles which heat up to a temperature high enough to kill cancerous cells – but which then self-regulate and lose heat before they get hot enough to harm healthy tissue. The self-stopping nanoparticles could soon be used as part of hyperthermic-thermotherapy to treat patients with cancer, according to an exciting new study reported in NanoscaleThermotherapy has long been used as a treatment method for cancer, but it is difficult to treat patients without damaging healthy cells. However, tumour cells can be weakened or killed without affecting normal tissue if temperatures can be controlled accurately within a range of 42°C to 45°C.

Scientists from Surrey’s Advanced Technology Institute have worked with colleagues from the Dalian University of Technology in China to create nanoparticles which, when implanted and used in a thermotherapy session, can induce temperatures of up to 45°C. The Zn-Co-Cr ferrite nanoparticles produced for this study are self-regulating, meaning that they self-stop heating when they reach temperatures over 45°C. Importantly, the nanoparticles are also low in toxicity and are unlikely to cause permanent damage to the body.

This could potentially be a game changer in the way we treat people who have cancer. If we can keep cancer treatment sat at a temperature level high enough to kill the cancer, while low enough to stop harming healthy tissue, it will prevent some of the serious side effects of vital treatment. It’s a very exciting development which, once again, shows that the University of Surrey research is at the forefront of nanotechnologies – whether in the field of energy materials or, in this case, healthcare,” said Professor Ravi Silva, Head of the Advanced Technology Institute at the University of Surrey.

Dr. Wei Zhang, Associate Professor from Dalian University of Technology explains: “Magnetic induced hyperthermia is a traditional route of treating malignant tumours. However, the difficulties in temperature control has significantly restricted its usage If we can modulate the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles, the therapeutic temperature can be self-regulated, eliminating the use of clumsy temperature monitoring and controlling systems.

“By making magnetic materials with the Curie temperature falling in the range of hyperthermia temperatures, the self-regulation of therapeutics can be achieved. For the most magnetic materials, however, the Curie temperature is much higher than the human body can endure. By adjusting the components as we have, we have synthesized the nanoparticles with the Curie temperature as low as 34oC. This is a major nanomaterials breakthrough.”

Source: https://www.surrey.ac.uk/

Using Brain-Machine Interfaces, Mental Power Can Move Objects

A unique citizen science project in which volunteers will be trained to move a piece of steel machinery using the power of their mind begins on October 27. The Mental Work project uses brain-machine interfaces developed at EPFL (Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne) in Switzerland, a convergence of science, art, and design .

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At the mental work factory the public can come and we equip them with an EEG helmet which will read the mental activity, the electrical activity, that’s in their brain. These helmets are dry, so we don’t need gel for conductivity and they’re also wireless so they can walk through the mental factory and engage with four of our machines activating them with only their mental activity,  explains Michael Mitchell , who is one of the three co-founders of Mental Work.

The data that will be collected during the mental worker’s trajectory throughout our factory floor will then be made anonymous and given to the brain machine interface community to improve the interfaces for the future. “We think that we’re on the cusp of a cognitive revolution. Now a cognitive revolution is going to be a world where our brains are intimately connected to our physical world around us. With the development of these brain machine interfaces we think that we are really at the beginning of a moment in time where man is going to become the centre of all this technology. His brain activity is going to interact with the physical world around him in ways that we can hardly imagine today. “So I think it’s understandable if people are a little apprehensive about this technology because some people may think ‘oh, it can read my thoughts and then what are we going to do with those thoughts. Where’s the privacy level here?’ But in fact we’re only asking you to modulate your brain activity according to your own will. So it’s as simple as sending a command to a computer using a mouse or a keyboard. But this time we’re using asking you to use your brain. Now we want to bring this technology to the public at a early phase of its development so that we can create a dialogue about what kind of relationship we want to have with this technology in particular but also with man’s relationship to technology in general.

Source: https://actu.epfl.ch/

3D Printed Concrete Bridge

Today world’s first 3D printed reinforced, pre-stressed concrete bridge was opened. The cycle bridge is part of a new road around the village of Gemert, in the Netherlands. It was printed at Eindhoven University of Technology. With the knowledge the researchers gained in this project, they are now able to design even larger printed concrete structures.
The bridge is the first civil infrastructure project to be realized with 3D-concrete printing. The bridge is 8 meters long (clear span 6.5 meters) and 3.5 meters wide. As it is a ‘worlds first’, the developers did not take any chances and tested the bridge by putting a load of 5 tons on it, which is a lot more than the load the bridge will actually carry.

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The bridge has to meet all regular requirements of course. It is designed to do its duty – to carry cyclists – for thirty years or more. With more cycles than people in the Netherlands, it is expected that hundreds of cyclists will ride over the printed bridge every day. It is part of a large road construction project, led by the company BAM Infra, and commissioned by the province of North-Brabant.
An important detail is that the researchers at Eindhoven University of Technology have succeeded in developing a process to incorporate steel reinforcement cable while laying a strip of concrete. The steel cable is the equivalent of the reinforcement mesh used in conventional concrete. It handles the tensile stress because concrete cannot deal with tensile stress adequately, but steel can.
One of the main advantages of printing concrete is that much less concrete is needed than in the conventional technique, in which a mold (formwork) is filled with concrete. By contrast, the printer deposits only the concrete where it is needed, which decreases the use of cement. This reduces CO2 emissions, as cement production has a very high carbon footprint.

Another benefit lies in the freedom of form: the printer can make any desired shape, whereas conventional concrete shapes tend to be unwieldy in shape due to use of formwork. Concrete printing also enables a much higher realization speed. No formwork structures have to be built and dismantled, and reinforcement mesh does not have to be put in place separately. Overall, the researchers think the realization will eventually be roughly three times faster than conventional concrete techniques.

Source: https://www.tue.nl/

Gene Researchers Have Created Green Mice

These are no Frankenstein mice. Their green feet come courtesy of a fluorescent green jelly fish gene added to their own genome. This allows a team of British scientists to test out gene editing using CRISPR-Cas9 technology.

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“We take what were or would have been green embryos and we make them into non-green embryos, so it’s a really great way of demonstrating the method“, said Dr. Anthony Perry, reproductive biologist at the University of Bath.

The technique uses the ribonucleic acid molecule CRISPR together with the Cas9 protein enzyme. CRISPR guides the Cas9 protein to a defective part of a genome where it acts like molecular scissors to cut out a specific part of the DNA. This could revolutionise how we treat diseases with a genetic component, like sickle cell anaemia. The technique is being pioneered in the U.S.
We now have a technology that allows correction of a sequence that would lead to normally functioning cells. And I think you know the opportunities with this are really exciting and really profound. There are many diseases that are have known genetic causes that we now have in principle a way to cure,“explains Jennifer Doudna, Professor of cell biology at the University of Berkeley.
Last year two teams of U.S. based scientists used CRISPR-Cas9 technology in mice to correct the genetic mutation that causes sickle cell disease. Although researchers aren’t yet close to using CRISPR-Cas9 to edit human embryos for implantation into the womb – some are already warning against it.

Dr David King, Director of  Human Genetics Alert, comments: “It will immediately create this new form of what we call consumer eugenics, that’s to say eugenics driven by the free market and consumer preferences in which people choose the cosmetic characteristics and the abilities of their children and try to basically enhance their children to perform better than other people’s children.” Other potential applications of the technology could be to make food crops and livestock animal species disease-resistant. The British team say CRISPR-Cas9 presents a golden opportunity to prevent genetic disease.

Source: http://www.reuters.com/
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