Posts belonging to Category additive manufacturing



Inkjet Printers Grow Nerve Stem Cells

Inkjet printers and lasers are parts of a new way to produce cells important to research on nerve regeneration. Researchers at Iowa State University have developed a nanotechnology that uses inkjet printers to print multi-layer graphene circuits….It turns out mesenchymal stem cells adhere and grow well on the treated circuit’s raised, rough, and 3D nanostructures. Add small doses of electricity—100 millivolts for 10 minutes per day over 15 days—and the stem cells become Schwann-like cells, [which secrete substances that promote the health of nerve cells].

nerve cells

This technology could lead to a better way to differentiate stem cells,” says Metin Uz, a postdoctoral research associate in chemical and biological engineering. The researchers report the results could lead to changes in how nerve injuries are treated inside the body. “These results help pave the way for in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration where the flexible graphene electrodes could conform to the injury site and provide intimate electrical stimulation for nerve cell regrowth,” the researchers write in a summary of their findings.

Source: https://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/

Ultrafast Flexible Electronic Memory

Engineering experts from the University of Exeter (UK) have developed innovative new memory using a hybrid of graphene oxide and titanium oxide. Their devices are low cost and eco-friendly to produce, are also perfectly suited for use in flexible electronic devices such as ‘bendablemobile phone, computer and television screens, and even ‘intelligentclothing.
. Crucially, these devices may also have the potential to offer a cheaper and more adaptable alternative to ‘flash memory’, which is currently used in many common devices such as memory cards, graphics cards and USB computer drives. The research team insist that these innovative new devices have the potential to revolutionise not only how data is stored, but also take flexible electronics to a new age in terms of speed, efficiency and power.

bendable mobile phone

Using graphene oxide to produce memory devices has been reported before, but they were typically very large, slow, and aimed at the ‘cheap and cheerful’ end of the electronics goods market”, said Professor David Wright, an Electronic Engineering expert from the University of Exeter.

Our hybrid graphene oxide-titanium oxide memory is, in contrast, just 50 nanometres long and 8 nanometres thick and can be written to and read from in less than five nanoseconds – with one nanometre being one billionth of a metre and one nanosecond a billionth of a second.”

The research is published in the scientific journal ACS Nano.

Source: http://www.exeter.ac.uk/

Graphene And Fractals Boost The Solar Power Storage By 3000%

Inspired by an American fern, researchers have developed a groundbreaking prototype that could be the answer to the storage challenge still holding solar back as a total energy solution. The new type of electrode created by RMIT University (Australia) researchers could boost the capacity of existing integrable storage technologies by 3000 per cent. But the graphene-based prototype also opens a new path to the development of flexible thin film all-in-one solar capture and storage, bringing us one step closer to self-powering smart phones, laptops, cars and buildings. The new electrode is designed to work with supercapacitors, which can charge and discharge power much faster than conventional batteries. Supercapacitors have been combined with solar, but their wider use as a storage solution is restricted because of their limited capacity.

RMIT’s Professor Min Gu said the new design drew on nature’s own genius solution to the challenge of filling a space in the most efficient way possible – through intricate self-repeating patterns known as “fractals”.

The leaves of the western swordfern are densely crammed with veins, making them extremely efficient for storing energy and transporting water around the plant,” said Gu, Leader of the Laboratory of Artificial Intelligence Nanophotonics at RMIT.

mimicking fern

Our electrode is based on these fractal shapes – which are self-replicating, like the mini structures within snowflakes – and we’ve used this naturally-efficient design to improve solar energy storage at a nano level. “The immediate application is combining this electrode with supercapacitors, as our experiments have shown our prototype can radically increase their storage capacity30 times more than current capacity limits.   “Capacity-boosted supercapacitors would offer both long-term reliability and quick-burst energy release – for when someone wants to use solar energy on a cloudy day for example – making them ideal alternatives for solar power storage.”  Combined with supercapacitors, the fractal-enabled laser-reduced graphene electrodes can hold the stored charge for longer, with minimal leakage.

Source: https://www.rmit.edu.au/

‘Spray-On’ Memory for Paper, Fabric, Plastic

USB flash drives are already common accessories in offices and college campuses. But thanks to the rise in printable electronics, digital storage devices like these may soon be everywhere – including on our groceries, pill bottles and even clothingDuke University researchers have brought us closer to a future of low-cost, flexible electronics by creating a new “spray-on digital memory device using only an aerosol jet printer and nanoparticle inks. The device, which is analogous to a 4-bit flash drive, is the first fully-printed digital memory that would be suitable for practical use in simple electronics such as environmental sensors or RFID tags. And because it is jet-printed at relatively low temperatures, it could be used to build programmable electronic devices on bendable materials like paper, plastic or fabric.

PrintingMemory

Duke University researchers have developed a new “spray-on” digital memory (upper left) that could be used to build programmable electronics on flexible materials like paper, plastic or fabric. They used LEDS to demonstrate a simple application.

We have all of the parameters that would allow this to be used for a practical application, and we’ve even done our own little demonstration using LEDs,” said Duke graduate student Matthew Catenacci, who describes the device in a paper published online in the Journal of Electronic Materials. At the core of the new device, which is about the size of a postage stamp, is a new copper-nanowire-based printable material that is capable of storing digital information.

Memory is kind of an abstract thing, but essentially it is a series of ones and zeros which you can use to encode information,” said Benjamin Wiley, an associate professor of chemistry at Duke and an author on the paper.

Source: https://today.duke.edu/

NanoMachine Lifts 15 times Its Weight

Using advanced 3-D printing, Dartmouth College researchers have unlocked the key to transforming microscopic nanorings into smart materials that perform work at human-scaleNanomachines (nanocomputers) can already deliver medication and serve as computer memories at the tiny nanometer scale. By integrating a 3-D printing technique pioneered at Dartmouth’s Ke Functional Materials Group, researchers may unlock even greater potential for these mini-machines.

3D printing nanomachines

A 3-D printed gel structure lifts and lowers a U.S. dime when alternately exposed to water and DMSO solvent

Up until now, harnessing the mechanical work of nanomachines has been extremely difficult. We are slowly getting closer to the point that the tiny machines can operate on a scale that we can see, touch and feel.” said Chenfeng Ke, Assistant Professor for Chemistry at Dartmouth College and principle investigator for the research.

In an example provided by Ke, the first-generation smart material lifted a dime weighing 2.268g. The coin, 15 times the weight of the that lifted it, was raised 1.6 mm– the equivalent of a human lifting a car. “Creating nanomachine-based smart material is still extraordinarily complex and we are only just beginning, but this new technique could allow the design and fabrication of complex smart devices that are currently beyond our grasp,” said Ke.

The research was published on March 22 in the online edition of Angewandte Chemie, the journal of the German Chemical Society.

Source: http://www.keresearchgroup.com/
A
ND
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/

How To Create Human Skin With 3D Bio-Printers

Spanish scientists are making human skin using a 3D bio-printer. Engineered skin was the first living human organ available commercially but its production can be expensive and time-consuming. This research at Madrid’s Carlos III University could one day lead to the mass production of skin.

bioprinter

CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE VIDEO

The idea of applying 3D bio-printers for the creation of human tissue and organs is a real breakthrough because it has changed the way people in this field think because until now we have been doing it manually. Being able to use a bio-printer to control the amount of skin over time and space gives us new possibilities that were unimaginable when we worked manually,” says Jose Luis Jorcano, Head of the CIEMAT/UC3M  Bioengineering Department.

To bio-engineer skin on a 3D bio-printer, the key component is “bio-ink,” a substance loaded with biological components such as plasma containing human skin cells. Using a computer, scientists deposit these “bio-inks” on a print bed to form the skin. Although years away, scientists believe the technology could be used to bio-engineer more complex human organs.

The idea for the future would be to be able to fully print complex organs such as hearts or kidneys but as I said, that’s the desire and the dream all of us who work in this field have, but there is no date for it yet,” explains Jose Luis Jorcano, who is the co-creator of the bio-printer.

The scientists say their prototype can produce 100 cm2 of 3D printed skin in less than 35 minutes.

Source: http://www.uc3m.es/
AND
http://www.reuters.com/

How To Build A 3D Printed House in One Day For $10,000

San Francisco-based Apis Cor reported on its blog that on a cold day last December it (and a number of its partners) built an entire 400 square foot house with its custom printer and it only cost $10,000. Oh, and it took just 24 hours to complete.

ApisCor_febr_top

Others have claimed to build houses with 3D printers. But what makes Apis Cor’s house unique is that it wasn’t constructed from pre-printed panels that required assembly by construction workers. The “printer” used is a giant, mobile piece of crane-like equipment that layers on cement in one continuous process, building both the internal and external structure all at once instead of in multiple parts. It’s a one-story structure but it can be constructed in just about any shape and the company showed how it could be built in even the coldest of conditions in this YouTube video.

Contractors worrying about their jobs shouldn’t panic…yet. Once all the walls are put together, those workers are then needed to do everything else – like installing windows and the roof, plus painting, insulating and putting in appliances, according to this report in Quartz. A finished test house that the company built with a partner in Russia is “cozy and comfortable” and includes “a hall, a bathroom, a living room and a compact functional kitchen with the most modern appliances from Samsung company,” Apis Cor’s blog boasts.

3D printed house

As you can see with the advent of new technology,” the company says in its blog post. “Construction 3D printing is changing the view and approach to the construction of low-rise buildings and provides new opportunities to implement custom architectural solutions.

The possibilities of this advancement in 3D printing are many. Houses could be quickly constructed for refugee camps, people displaced by natural disaster or for those who do not have available housing, such as the homeless. Governments could build entire communities of affordable housing at just a fraction of what’s paid today.

Source:  https://www.washingtonpost.com/
AND
http://apis-cor.com/

Efficient, Fast, Large-scale 3-D Manufacturing

Washington State University (WSU) researchers have developed a unique, 3-D manufacturing method that for the first time rapidly creates and precisely controls a material’s architecture from the nanoscale to centimeters – with results that closely mimic the intricate architecture of natural materials like wood and bone.

3D manufacturing Hex-Scaffold-web-

This is a groundbreaking advance in the 3-D architecturing of materials at nano- to macroscales with applications in batteries, lightweight ultrastrong materials, catalytic converters, supercapacitors and biological scaffolds,” said Rahul Panat, associate professor in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, who led the research. “This technique can fill a lot of critical gaps for the realization of these technologies.”

The WSU research team used a 3-D printing method to create foglike microdroplets that contain nanoparticles of silver and to deposit them at specific locations. As the liquid in the fog evaporated, the nanoparticles remained, creating delicate structures. The tiny structures, which look similar to Tinkertoy constructions, are porous, have an extremely large surface area and are very strong.

The researchers would like to use such nanoscale and porous metal structures for a number of industrial applications; for instance, the team is developing finely detailed, porous anodes and cathodes for batteries rather than the solid structures that are now used. This advance could transform the industry by significantly increasing battery speed and capacity and allowing the use of new and higher energy materials.

They report on their work in the journal  Science Advances  and have filed for a patent.

Source: https://news.wsu.edu/

Nano Printing Heralds NanoComputers Era

A new technique using liquid metals to create integrated circuits that are just atoms thick could lead to the next big advance for electronics. The process opens the way for the production of large wafers around 1.5 nanometres in depth (a sheet of paper, by comparison, is 100,000nm thick). Other techniques have proven unreliable in terms of quality, difficult to scale up and function only at very high temperatures – 550 degrees or more.

Professor Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh, from RMIT’s School of Engineering in Australia , led the project with  colleagues from RMIT and researchers from CSIRO, Monash University, North Carolina State University and the the University of California, He observed that the electronics industry had “hit a barrier.

nano printing

The fundamental technology of car engines has not progressed since 1920 and now the same is happening to electronics. Mobile phones and computers are no more powerful than five years ago. That is why this new 2D printing technique is so important – creating many layers of incredibly thin electronic chips on the same surface dramatically increases processing power and reduces costsIt will allow for the next revolution in electronics.

Benjamin Carey, a researcher with RMIT and the CSIRO, said creating electronic wafers just atoms thick could overcome the limitations of current chip production. It could also produce materials that were extremely bendable, paving the way for flexible electronics. “However, none of the current technologies are able to create homogenous surfaces of atomically thin semiconductors on large surface areas that are useful for the industrial scale fabrication of chips.  Our solution is to use the metals gallium and indium, which have a low melting point.  These metals produce an atomically thin layer of oxide on their surface that naturally protects them. It is this thin oxide which we use in our fabrication method,”  explains Carey.

By rolling the liquid metal, the oxide layer can be transferred on to an electronic wafer, which is then sulphurised. The surface of the wafer can be pre-treated to form individual transistors.  We have used this novel method to create transistors and photo-detectors of very high gain and very high fabrication reliability in large scale,” he adds.

The paper outlining the new technique has been published in the journal Nature Communications.

Source: http://www.rmit.edu.au/

Wooden SkyScrapers

High-rise wooden buildings, such as 14-storey apartment building “The Tree” in Norway, are altering city skylines in what the timber industry is heralding as a new era that will dent the supremacy of concrete and steel.

wooden skyscraper

CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE VIDEO

Situated on the Bergen waterfront, The Tree is the tallest wooden building in the world. The 52.8 metre high structure is one of a growing number of so-called Plyscrapers altering city skylines. The timber industry say it’s an environmental solution, as countries seek to reduce emissions.

It will never totally displace concrete and steel, but it’s definitely a part in our solution towards our struggle towards a CO2 neutral society,”  says Ole Herman Kleppe, Chief Project Manager.

The architects insist that fears of fire in such timber homes are groundless.  “These columns and these CLT panels they don’t burn. They’re so thick that they don’t burn. In addition, they are painted with fire resistant paint and the house is sprinkled so we have all possible ways to prevent a fire in the house. So actually, this is the safest house in Bergen regarding fire.” explains Kleppe.

The 14-storey structure is made of sustainable wood. But concrete makers dispute the idea that timber is greener, insisting that deforestation causes more CO2 emissions. The Tree’s structure isn’t entirely wooden.

It’s concrete on this roof because it adds weight and it was necessary to add weight to this wooden building because it kind of dampens the swinging,” adds Per Reigstad, architect at Artec.

Later this year a wooden building that’s two inches taller will open in Vancouver. Even taller structures are being planned in Vienna and London.

Source: http://www.reuters.com/

Scalable Production of Conductive Graphene Inks

Conductive inks based on graphene and layered materials are key for low-cost manufacturing of flexible electronics, novel energy solutions, composites and coatings. A new method for liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite paves the way for scalable production.

Conductive inks are useful for a range of applications, including printed and flexible electronics such as radio frequency identification (RFID) antennas, transistors or photovoltaic cells. The advent of the internet of things is predicted to lead to new connectivity within everyday objects, including in food packaging. Thus, there is a clear need for cheap and efficient production of electronic devices, using stable, conductive and non-toxic components. These inks can also be used to create novel composites, coatings and energy storage devices.

A new method for producing high quality conductive graphene inks with high concentrations has been developed by researchers working at the Cambridge Graphene Centre at the University of Cambridge, UK. The novel method uses ultrahigh shear forces in a microfluidisation process to exfoliate graphene flakes from graphite. The process converts 100% of the starting graphite material into usable flakes for conductive inks, avoiding the need for centrifugation and reducing the time taken to produce a usable ink. The research, published in ACS Nano, also describes optimisation of the inks for different printing applications, as well as giving detailed insights into the fluid dynamics of graphite exfoliation.

graphene scalable production

“This important conceptual advance will significantly help innovation and industrialization. The fact that the process is already licensed and commercialized indicates how it is feasible to cut the time from lab to market” , said Prof. Andrea Ferrari, Director of the Cambridge Graphene Centre.

Source: http://www.graphene.cam.ac.uk/

Printable solar cells

A University of Toronto (U of T) Engineering innovation could make building printing cells as easy and inexpensive as printing a newspaper. Dr. Hairen Tan and his team have cleared a critical manufacturing hurdle in the development of a relatively new class of solar devices called perovskite solar cells. This alternative solar technology could lead to low-cost, printable solar panels capable of turning nearly any surface into a power generator.

Printable Perovskite SolarCell

Economies of scale have greatly reduced the cost of silicon manufacturing,” says University Professor Ted Sargent (ECE), an expert in emerging solar technologies and the Canada Research Chair in Nanotechnology and senior author on the paper. “Perovskite solar cells can enable us to use techniques already established in the printing industry to produce solar cells at very low cost. Potentially, perovskites and silicon cells can be married to improve efficiency further, but only with advances in low-temperature processes.”

Today, virtually all commercial solar cells are made from thin slices of crystalline silicon which must be processed to a very high purity. It’s an energy-intensive process, requiring temperatures higher than 1,000 degrees Celsius and large amounts of hazardous solvents.

In contrast, perovskite solar cells depend on a layer of tiny crystals — each about 1,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair — made of low-cost, light-sensitive materials. Because the perovskite raw materials can be mixed into a liquid to form a kind of ‘solar ink’, they could be printed onto glass, plastic or other materials using a simple inkjet process.

Source: http://news.engineering.utoronto.ca