Posts belonging to Category nanofluids



How To Detect Lead In Water

Gitanjali Rao, 11-year-old girl, is “America’s Top Young Scientist” of this year, with her invention of Tethys, a device that detects lead in water.

CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE VIDEO

Tethys, the Greek goddess of fresh water, is a lead detection tool. What you do is first dip a disposable cartridge, which can easily be removed and attached to the core device in the water you wish to test. Once you do that, that’s basically the manual part. Then you just pull out an app on your phone and check your status and it looks like the water in this container is safe. So that’s just very simple, about like a 10 to 15 second process,” says Gitanjali Rao . The young girl was affected by the Flint, Michigan water catastrophe when the city started using the Flint River for water in 2014, sparking a crisis that was linked to an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease, at least 12 deaths and dangerously high lead levels in children.

I was most affected about Flint, Michigan because of the amount of people that were getting affected by the lead in water. And I also realized that it wasn’t just in Flint, Michigan and there were over 5,000 water systems in the U.S. alone. In the beginning of my final presentation at the event, I talked about a little boy named Opemipo, he’s 10 years old and lives in Flint, Michigan. And he has 1 percent elevated lead levels in his blood. And he’s among the thousands of adults and children exposed to the harmful effects of lead in water. So it’s a pretty big deal out there today,” remembers Rao. The seventh-grader said it took her five months to make Tethys from start to finish.

My first couple of times when I was doing my experimentation and test, I did fail so many times and it was frustrating, but I knew that it was just a learning experience and I could definitely develop my device further by doing even more tests and getting advice from my mentor as well. So, never be afraid to try,” explains Rao, who  won the 2017 Discovery Education 3M Young Scientist Challenge, along with a $25,000 prize.

Source: http://www.reuters.com/

Skin Patches Melt Fat

Researchers have devised a medicated skin patch that can turn energy-storing white fat into energy-burning brown fat locally while raising the body’s overall metabolism. The patch could be used to burn off pockets of unwanted fat such as “love handles” and treat metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, according to researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and the University of North Carolina. Humans have two types of fat. White fat stores excess energy in large triglyceride droplets. Brown fat has smaller droplets and a high number of mitochondria that burn fat to produce heat. Newborns have a relative abundance of brown fat, which protects against exposure to cold temperatures. But by adulthood, most brown fat is lost.

For years, researchers have been searching for therapies that can transform an adult’s white fat into brown fat—a process named browning—which can happen naturally when the body is exposed to cold temperatures—as a treatment for obesity and diabetes.

CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE VIDEO

There are several clinically available drugs that promote browning, but all must be given as pills or injections,” said study co-leader Li Qiang, PhD, assistant professor of pathology & cell biology at Columbia. “This exposes the whole body to the drugs, which can lead to side effects such as stomach upset, weight gain, and bone fractures. Our skin patch appears to alleviate these complications by delivering most drugs directly to fat tissue.

To apply the treatment, the drugs are first encased in nanoparticles, each roughly 250 nanometers (nm) in diameter—too small to be seen by the naked eye. (In comparison, a human hair is about 100,000 nm wide.) The nanoparticles are then loaded into a centimeter-square skin patch containing dozens of microscopic needles. When applied to skin, the needles painlessly pierce the skin and gradually release the drug from nanoparticles into underlying tissue.

The findings, from experiments in mice, were published online today in ACS Nano.

Source: http://newsroom.cumc.columbia.edu/

NanoRobots Trap Bacteria And Clean Water

The lack of clean water in many areas around the world is a persistent, major public health problem. One day, tiny robots could help address this issue by zooming around contaminated water and cleaning up disease-causing bacteria. Scientists from the Max-Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (Germany) and  the Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC) report a new development toward this goal in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.

Drinking water contaminated with pathogenic bacteria can cause serious illnesses that, in areas with spotty medical services, are potentially life-threatening without proper treatment. Water can be disinfected with chlorine or other disinfectants, but there are some hardy bacteria and other microorganisms that are hard to remove. Treating water with a combination of disinfectants or increasing their concentrations can help. But they remain in the water, and their byproducts can be harmful to human health. In recent years, researchers have been exploring the use of self-propelled micromotors to degrade and capture pollutants in water. Building on this work, Diana Vilela, Samuel Sánchez Ordóñez (IBEC) and colleagues wanted to see if they could engineer tiny robots to remove waterborne bacteria.

The team designed “two-facedspherical particles to perform the task. One face is made with magnesium, which reacts with water to produce hydrogen bubbles to propel the microbots. The other face is made out of alternating iron and gold layers topped by silver nanoparticles. Bacteria stick to the gold and are killed by the silver nanoparticles. Lab testing showed that the particles can motor around in water for 15 to 20 minutes before the magnesium is spent. And they trapped more than 80 percent of E. coli in water spiked with a high concentration of the bacteria. Then, because of the iron’s magnetic properties, the microbots are removed easily with a magnet, without leaving behind any harmful waste in the water.

Source: http://pubs.acs.org/

How Yo Make Sea Water Drinkable

Graphene-oxide membranes have attracted considerable attention as promising candidates for new filtration technologies. Now the much sought-after development of making membranes capable of sieving common salts has been achieved. New research demonstrates the real-world potential of providing clean drinking water for millions of people who struggle to access adequate clean water sources. Graphene-oxide membranes developed at the National Graphene Institute have already demonstrated the potential of filtering out small nanoparticles, organic molecules, and even large salts. Until now, however, they couldn’t be used for sieving common salts used in desalination technologies, which require even smaller sieves. Previous research at The University of Manchester found that if immersed in water, graphene-oxide membranes become slightly swollen and smaller salts flow through the membrane along with water, but larger ions or molecules are blocked.

The Manchester-based group have now further developed these graphene membranes and found a strategy to avoid the swelling of the membrane when exposed to water. The pore size in the membrane can be precisely controlled which can sieve common salts out of salty water and make it safe to drink.

CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE VIDEO

Realisation of scalable membranes with uniform pore size down to atomic scale is a significant step forward and will open new possibilities for improving the efficiency of desalination technology,” says Professor Rahul Raveendran Nair.

The new findings from a group of scientists at The University of Manchester have been published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

Source: http://www.manchester.ac.uk/
AND
http://www.reuters.com/

Scalable Production of Conductive Graphene Inks

Conductive inks based on graphene and layered materials are key for low-cost manufacturing of flexible electronics, novel energy solutions, composites and coatings. A new method for liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite paves the way for scalable production.

Conductive inks are useful for a range of applications, including printed and flexible electronics such as radio frequency identification (RFID) antennas, transistors or photovoltaic cells. The advent of the internet of things is predicted to lead to new connectivity within everyday objects, including in food packaging. Thus, there is a clear need for cheap and efficient production of electronic devices, using stable, conductive and non-toxic components. These inks can also be used to create novel composites, coatings and energy storage devices.

A new method for producing high quality conductive graphene inks with high concentrations has been developed by researchers working at the Cambridge Graphene Centre at the University of Cambridge, UK. The novel method uses ultrahigh shear forces in a microfluidisation process to exfoliate graphene flakes from graphite. The process converts 100% of the starting graphite material into usable flakes for conductive inks, avoiding the need for centrifugation and reducing the time taken to produce a usable ink. The research, published in ACS Nano, also describes optimisation of the inks for different printing applications, as well as giving detailed insights into the fluid dynamics of graphite exfoliation.

graphene scalable production

“This important conceptual advance will significantly help innovation and industrialization. The fact that the process is already licensed and commercialized indicates how it is feasible to cut the time from lab to market” , said Prof. Andrea Ferrari, Director of the Cambridge Graphene Centre.

Source: http://www.graphene.cam.ac.uk/

Understanding The Risks Of Nanotechnology

When radioactive materials were first introduced into society, it took a while before scientists understood the risks. The same is true of nanotechnology today, according to Dr Vladimir Baulin, from University Rovira i Virgili, in Tarragona, Spain, who together with colleagues has shown for the first time how nanoparticles can cross biological – or lipidmembranes in a paper published in the journal Science Advances
Nanotechnology is all around us, in building materials, in toothpaste and in cleaning products. Across Europe, hundreds of institutions are working together to look at how to monitor exposure, manage the risks and advise on what regulations may be needed under the EU’s NanoSafety Cluster.

nanoparticles effects on lipids

This is the first observation to show directly how tiny gold nanoparticles can cross a lipid bilayer (main part of a biological membrane). This process was quantified and the time of each step was estimated. The lipid membrane is the ultimate barrier protecting cells from the outside environment and if the nanoparticles can cross this barrier they may go into cells.’

‘Dr Jean-Baptiste Fleury (from Saarland University in Germany) designed a special set-up with two chambers separated by a lipid bilayer, which contained fluorescent lipids (fat molecules). Non-fluorescent nanoparticles were added to only one of the chambers. In this set-up, nanoparticles became visible only when they touched the fluorescent bilayer and exchanged lipids with it. If one sees the fluorescent nanoparticle in the second chamber, this means it was in contact with the bilayer and it crossed the bilayer from one chamber to another. This was the proof. In addition, the process of translocation was quantified and the time of the crossing was estimated as milliseconds.’

All biological objects, biomolecules, proteins that exist in living organisms evolved over billions of years to adapt to each other. Nanoparticles which are synthesised in the laboratory are thus considered by a living organism as something foreign. It is a big challenge to make them compatible and not toxic.’ ‘I would count the applications of nanoparticles as starting from the 1985 Nobel Prize for the discovery of fullerenes (molecules of hollow football-shaped carbon). This was the start of the nanoparticle boom.’

This is becoming urgent because nanoparticles and nanotechnology in general are entering our lives. Now it is possible to synthesise nanomaterials with precise control, fabricate nanostructures on surfaces and do precise tailoring of the properties of nanoparticles.

‘It is becoming quite urgent to understand the exact mechanisms of nanotoxicity and make a classification depending on the mechanism. Radioactivity or X-rays entered our lives the same way. It took time until researchers understood the mechanisms of action on living organisms and the regulations evolved with our understanding.’

gold nanoparticles cross the membrane

This is the first observation to show directly how tiny gold nanoparticles can cross a lipid bilayer.

An empirical test of toxicity is that you put nanoparticles into the cells and you see the cells are dead, but you don’t understand what has happened, this is empirical. This is a legitimate tool, but it is not enough to address toxicity. Instead, one could start from the properties of nanoparticles and think about classifying nano-objects based on their physical or chemical properties by trying to predict the effect of a given nanoparticle on a cell or tissue beforehand.

I understand, it may look too ambitious, since there are a lot of tiny details that are not considered at the moment in theoretical models or any classification. However, even if it may not be exact, it can give some guidance and it would be possible to make predictions on how nanoparticles and polymers interact with lipid membranes. For example, in this study we used theoretical modelling to suggest the size and surface properties of the nanoparticle that is able to cross the lipid membrane through a certain pathway and it was observed experimentally.’

Source: https://horizon-magazine.eu/

Robotic Sommelier Blends The Wine That Matches Your Personal Taste

It’s a device that may have wine aficionados spluttering into their claret. Vinfusion is a robotic sommelier that helps you blend a glass of wine to your specific taste. It’s pre-loaded with four distinct base wines that can be mixed together into hundreds of new flavour combinations.

wineCLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE VIDEO

We took about 30-odd wines into the lab and analysed the chemical profile of those individual wines… we narrowed it down to four base wines; these are a Chilean Pinot Noir, a Chilean Merlot, an Australian Shiraz and a French sweet wine which is a Muscat. And we chose these wines to represent the extremes of the flavour space that we developed,” says Sajith Wimalaratne, Manager at Cambridge Consultants. Using simple terms like full-bodied or light, and dry or sweet the user simply adjusts the parameters on a sliding scale. Vinfusion also makes recommendations based on the wine you’ve created.

I’m going to blend my own wine. So I’m going to have quite a full-bodied wine, pretty soft and fairly sweet. And it says that this wine is similar to a ruby port. And now I’m going to blend this wine; so you can see we’ve got four wines blending in the chamber here, they’re coming in the top and they’re also being aerated to open up the bouquet of the wine, just as you would open a red wine for a while before you drink it.” adds Andrew Stratton, fluids engineer at Cambridge Consultants.

The wine dispensed – while certainly quaffable – would be unlikely to pass muster with serious wine lovers. The makers deliberately chose base wines priced around the 10-dollars the average consumer spend on a bottle.  “Wine is a complex beverage. And a lot of people just tend to stick to one or two that they know. But what we wanted to do was actually make this amazing range of wines out there, and make it more accessible to the consumer,” comments Sajith Wimalaratne.   Winemaking is steeped in history, largely defying technological interference. Vinfusion could, in theory, be loaded with finer wines producing a higher quality beverage. For wine snobs, however, any Vinfusion vintage might just be too unpalatable.

Source: http://www.reuters.com/

Lab-grown Bones Transplanted With Success

A lab-grown, semi-liquid bone graft has been successfully injected into 11 patients’ jaws to repair bone loss. Israeli biotech firm Bonus Biogroup announced the early stage clinical trial results.

bones

CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE VIDEO
What we are announcing to the world is that real success in our clinical study in regenerating new bone in maxillofacial site in the jaws, it was 100 percent successful in all 11 patients,” says Ora Burger, Vice President of Regulations Affairs at Bonus BioGroup.

The injectable bone grafts are made in the company’s Haifa plant, using cells extracted from patients’ fat tissue. They’re grown in sterile clean rooms, on biodegradable 3D scaffolds, before being injected into the voids in the jawbones.

We inject our semi-solid product inside of this defect and here we can see 12 weeks later that the bone is functional, we can see a full bone, a whole bone which is strong and hard and functional” comments Atara Novaks , Head of Research at Bonus BioGroup.

What we inject is a live bone. This is the first time ever that it’s been done,” adds Ora Burger. A clinical study into longer – so-called extremity – bones is now planned.

Source: http://www.bonus-bio.com/

Nanotechnology To Save Polluted Lakes

Peruvian scientist Marino Morikawa, known for his work revitalizing polluted wetlands in the North of Lima using nanotechnology, now plans to try to clean up Lake Titicaca and the Huacachina lagoon, an oasis south of Lima. El Cascajo, an ecosystem of 123 acres in Chancay district, located north of Lima, began its recovery process in 2010 with two inventions that Morikawa came up with using his own resources and money..The project started after he got a call from Morikawa’s father, who informed him that El Cascajo, where he had gone fishing in so many occasion as a child, was “in very bad shape,” Morikawa explains.

The scientist set out to find a way to decontaminate the wetlands without using chemicals. His first invention was a micro nanobubbling system, consisting of bubbles10,000 times smaller than those in soda – which help trap and paralyze viruses and bacteria, causing them to evaporate. He also designed biological filters to retain inorganic pollutants, such as heavy metals and minerals that adhere to surfaces and are decomposed by bacteriaIn just 15 days, the effort led to a revival of the wetlands, a process that in the laboratory had taken six months.

nanobubbles

Nature does its job. All I do is give it a boost to speed up the process,” Morikawa adds.

By 2013, about 60 percent of the wetlands was repopulated by migratory birds, that use El Cascajo as a layover on their route from Canada to Patagonia. Now, Morikawa has helped recover 30 habitats around the world, but has his sights on two ecosystems that are emblematic in Peru.

The first, scheduled for 2018, is the recovery of Lake Titicaca, the largest lake in South America, located 4,000 meters (13,115 feet) above sea level between Peru and Bolivia. The second project aims to restore the Huacachina lagoon near the southern city of Ica, where water stopped seeping in naturally in the 1980s.

Source: http://www.peruthisweek.com

Nanotechnology Boosts Oil Recovery

As oil producers struggle to adapt to , getting as much oil as possible out of every well has become even more important, despite concerns from nearby residents that some chemicals used to boost production may pollute underground water resources.

Researchers from the University of Houston have reported the discovery of a nanotechnology-based solution that could address both issues – achieving 15 percent tertiary oil recovery at low cost, without the large volume of chemicals used in most commercial fluids. The solution – graphene-based Janus amphiphilic nanosheets – is effective at a concentration of just 0.01 percent, meeting or exceeding the performance of both conventional and other nanotechnology-based fluids, said Zhifeng Ren, MD Anderson Chair professor of physics. Janus nanoparticles have at least two physical properties, allowing different chemical reactions on the same particle.

The low concentration and the high efficiency in boosting tertiary oil recovery make the nanofluid both more environmentally friendly and less expensive than options now on the market, said Ren, who also is a principal investigator at the Texas Center for Superconductivity at UH. He is lead author on a paper describing the work, published June 27 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

oil well

Our results provide a novel nanofluid flooding method for tertiary oil recovery that is comparable to the sophisticated chemical methods,” they wrote. “We anticipate that this work will bring simple nanofluid flooding at low concentration to the stage of oilfield practice, which could result in oil being recovered in a more environmentally friendly and cost-effective manner.

The U.S. Department of Energy estimates as much as 75 percent of recoverable reserves may be left after producers capture hydrocarbons that naturally rise to the surface or are pumped out mechanically, followed by a secondary recovery process using water or gas injection.

Traditional “tertiaryrecovery involves injecting a chemical mix into the well and can recover between 10 percent and 20 percent, according to the authors. But the large volume of chemicals used in tertiary oil recovery has raised concerns about potential environmental damage.

Obviously simple nanofluid flooding (containing only nanoparticles) at low concentration (0.01 wt% or less) shows the greatest potential from the environmental and economic perspective,” the researchers wrote.

Previously developed simple nanofluids recover less than 5 percent of the oil when used at a 0.01 percent concentration, they reported. That forces oil producers to choose between a higher nanoparticle concentration – adding to the cost – or mixing with polymers or surfactants. In contrast, they describe recovering 15.2 percent of the oil using their new and simple nanofluid at that concentration – comparable to chemical methods and about three times more efficient than other nanofluids.

Source: http://www.uh.edu/

How To Monitor and Combat Diabetes With A Simple Patch

In the future, diabetics may be able to replace finger prick tests and injections with this non-invasive smart patch to keep their glucose levels in check.

patch against diabetesCLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE VIDEO

The device is a type of patch which enables diabetic patients to monitor blood sugar levels via sweat without taking blood samples and control glucose levels by injecting medication“, says Kim Dae-Hyeong, researcher at the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul National University, South Korea.

After analyzing the patient’s sweat to sense glucose, the patch’s embedded sensors constantly test pH, humidity, and temperature – important factors for accurate blood sugar readings. The graphene-based patch is studded with micro-needles coated with medication that pierce the skin painlessly. When the patch senses above normal glucose levels a tiny heating element switches on which dissolves the medication coating the microneedles and releases it into the body. The prototype worked well in mice trials.

Diabetic patients can easily use our device because it does not cause any pain or stress them out. So they can monitor and manage blood glucose levels more often to prevent increasing it. Therefore, our device can greatly contribute to helping patients avoid complications of the disease“, comments Professor Kim Dae-Hyeong. Researchers want to lower the cost of production, while figuring out how to delivery enough medication to effectively treat humans, both major hurdles towards commercialization. The research was published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology in March.

Source: http://www.ibs.re.kr/

Color Printer Uses A Colorless Ink

From dot-matrix to 3-D, printing technology has come a long way in 40 years. But all of these technologies have created hues by using dye inks, which can be taxing on the environment. Now a team reports in ACS Nano the development of a colorless, non-toxic ink for use in inkjet printers. Instead of relying on dyes, the team exploits the nanostructure of this ink to create color on a page with inkjet printing.

squirrelThis image of a squirrel was printed in color by controlling the thickness of a colorless ink deposited on a thin film

Current technologies blend dyes — think CMYK or RGB — to print in color. But these substances can harm the environment. Aleksandr V. Yakovlev, Alexandr V. Vinogradov and colleagues at ITMO University (Russia) wanted to develop a nanostructure color printing technology that is “greener” and can be printed on a wide variety of surfaces.

The team found that a colorless titanium dioxide-based colloidal ink was the best suited for the job. It does not require high temperature fixing and can be deposited on many surfaces. The researchers can control the color produced on surfaces by varying the thickness of ink deposition from a normal inkjet printer. Creating a vibrant color red with this method and this very narrow angle of coloring remains a challenge. This method, however, has generated the first reported “green” ink that is both safe for the ecosystem and does not fade from UV exposure, the researchers say.

Source: http://www.acs.org/