Posts belonging to Category internet of NanoThings



Ultra-fast Data Processing At Nanoscale

Advancement in nanoelectronics, which is the use of nanotechnology in electronic components, has been fueled by the ever-increasing need to shrink the size of electronic devices like nanocomputers in a bid to produce smaller, faster and smarter gadgets such as computers, memory storage devices, displays and medical diagnostic tools.

While most advanced electronic devices are powered by photonics – which involves the use of photons to transmit informationphotonic elements are usually large in size and this greatly limits their use in many advanced nanoelectronics systems. Plasmons, which are waves of electrons that move along the surface of a metal after it is struck by photons, holds great promise for disruptive technologies in nanoelectronics. They are comparable to photons in terms of speed (they also travel with the speed of light), and they are much smaller. This unique property of plasmons makes them ideal for integration with nanoelectronics. However, earlier attempts to harness plasmons as information carriers had little success.

Addressing this technological gap, a research team from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has recently invented a novel “converter” that can harness the speed and small size of plasmons for high frequency data processing and transmission in nanoelectronics.

This innovative transducer can directly convert electrical signals into plasmonic signals, and vice versa, in a single step. By bridging plasmonics and nanoscale electronics, we can potentially make chips run faster and reduce power losses. Our plasmonic-electronic transducer is about 10,000 times smaller than optical elements. We believe it can be readily integrated into existing technologies and can potentially be used in a wide range of applications in the future,” explained Associate Professor Christian Nijhuis from the Department of Chemistry at the NUS Faculty of Science, who is the leader of the research team behind this breakthrough.

This novel discovery was first reported in the journal Nature Photonics.

Source: http://news.nus.edu.sg/

Paper Supercapacitor

By coating ordinary paper with layers of gold nanoparticles and other materials, researchers have fabricated flexible paper supercapacitors that exhibit the best performance of any textile-type supercapacitor to date. In particular, the paper supercapacitors address one of the biggest challenges in this area, which is to achieve a high energy density in addition to an already high power density, since both properties are essential for realizing high-performance energy-storage devices. In the future, flexible paper supercapacitors could be used in wearable electronics for biomedical, consumer, and military applications. The researchers, led by Seung Woo Lee at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Jinhan Cho at Korea University, have published a paper on the flexible paper supercapacitor electrodes in a recent issue of Nature Communications. As energy-storage devices, supercapacitors have several advantages over batteries, such as a higher power density, rapid charge/discharge rate, and longer lifetime, yet they lag behind batteries in energy density (the amount of energy that can be stored in a given amount of space). Although several methods have been attempted to improve the energy density of paper supercapacitors by coating them with various conductive materials, often these methods have the drawback of reducing the power density.

The paper electrodes based on layer-by-layer-assembled metal nanoparticles exhibit metal-like electric conductivity, paper-like mechanical properties, and a large surface area without any thermal treatment and/or mechanical pressing,” explains coauthor Yongmin Ko at Korea University. “The periodic insertion of metal nanoparticles within high-energy nanoparticle-based paper electrodes could resolve the critical tradeoff in which an increase in the loading amount of materials to enhance the energy density of supercapacitors decreases the power density.”
Tests  showed that the flexible paper supercapacitors had a maximum capacitance that is higher than any previously reported textile-based supercapacitor. In addition, the new devices exhibits an excellent capacity retention, demonstrated by a 90% capacity retention after 5,000 bending cycles.

Source: http://me.gatech.edu/

The Ultra Smart Community Of The Future

Japan’s largest electronics show CEATEC – showcasing its version of our future – in a connected world with intelligent robots And cars that know when the driver is falling asleep. This is Omron‘s “Onboard Driving Monitoring Sensor,” checking its driver isn’t distracted.

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We are developing sensors that help the car judge what state the driver is in, with regards to driving. For example, if the driver has his eyes open and set on things he should be looking at, if the driver is distracted or looking at smartphones, and these types of situations,” explains Masaki Suwa, Omron Corp. Chief Technologist.

After 18 years of consumer electronics, CEATEC is changing focus to the Internet of Things and what it calls ‘the ultra-smart community of the future‘ A future where machines take on more important roles – machines like Panasonic‘s CaloRieco – pop in your plate and know exactly what you are about to consume.

By placing freshly cooked food inside the machine, you can measure total calories and the three main nutrients: protein, fat and carbohydrate. By using this machine, you can easily manage your diet,” says Panasonic staff engineer Ryota Sato.

Even playtime will see machines more involved – like Forpheus the ping playing robot – here taking on a Olympic bronze medalist – and learning with every stroke.
Rio Olympics Table Tennis player , Jun Mizutani, Bronze Medalist, reports: “It wasn’t any different from playing with a human being. The robot kept improving and getting better as we played, and to be honest, I wanted to play with it when it had reached its maximum level, to see how good it is.”

Optical Computer

Researchers at the University of Sydney (Australia) have dramatically slowed digital information carried as light waves by transferring the data into sound waves in an integrated circuit, or microchipTransferring information from the optical to acoustic domain and back again inside a chip is critical for the development of photonic integrated circuits: microchips that use light instead of electrons to manage data.

These chips are being developed for use in telecommunications, optical fibre networks and cloud computing data centers where traditional electronic devices are susceptible to electromagnetic interference, produce too much heat or use too much energy.

The information in our chip in acoustic form travels at a velocity five orders of magnitude slower than in the optical domain,” said Dr Birgit Stiller, research fellow at the University of Sydney and supervisor of the project.

It is like the difference between thunder and lightning,” she said.

This delay allows for the data to be briefly stored and managed inside the chip for processing, retrieval and further transmission as light wavesLight is an excellent carrier of information and is useful for taking data over long distances between continents through fibre-optic cables.

But this speed advantage can become a nuisance when information is being processed in computers and telecommunication systems.

Source: https://sydney.universty.au/

Big Data And Skyrmions

Today’s world, rapidly changing because of “big data”, is encapsulated in trillions of tiny magnetic objects magnetic bits – each of which stores one bit of data in magnetic disk drives.   A group of scientists from the Max Planck Institutes in Halle and Dresden have discovered a new kind of magnetic nano-object in a novel material that could serve as a magnetic bit with cloaking properties to make a magnetic disk drive with no moving parts – a Racetrack Memory – a reality in the near future.

Most digital data is stored in the cloud as magnetic bits within massive numbers of magnetic disk drives.  Over the past several decades these magnetic bits have shrunk by many orders of magnitude, reaching limits where the boundaries of these magnetic regions can have special properties.  In some special materials these boundaries – “magnetic domain walls” – can be described as being topological. What this means is that these walls can be thought of as having a special magical cloak – what is referred to by scientists as “topological protection”.   An important consequence is that such magnetic walls are more stable to perturbations than similar magnetic bits without topological protection that are formed in conventional magnetic materials.  Thus, these “topological magnetic objects could be especially useful for storing1”s and “0”s, the basic elements of digital data.   One such object is a “magnetic skyrmion” which is a tiny magnetic region, perhaps tens to hundreds of atoms wide, separated from a surrounding magnetic region by a chiral domain wall.  Until recently only one type of skyrmion has been found in which it is surrounded by a chiral domain wall that takes the same form in all directions.   But there have been predictions of several other types of skyrmions that were not yet observed.

Now in a paper published in Nature, scientists from Prof. Stuart Parkin’s NISE department at the Max Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics in Halle, Germany, have found a second class of skyrmions, what are called “anti-skyrmions”, in materials synthesized in Prof. Claudia Felser.   The scientists from Halle and Dresden have found these tiny magnetic objects in a special class of versatile magnetic compounds called Heusler compounds.   Of these Heusler compounds, a tiny subset have just the right crystal symmetry to allow for the possibility of forming anti-skyrmions but not skyrmions.

The special cloaking properties of skyrmions makes them of great interest for a radically new form of solid-state memorythe Racetrack Memory. In Racetrack Memory digital data is encoded within magnetic domain walls that are packed closely within nanoscopic magnetic wires.  One of the unique features of Racetrack Memory, which is distinct from all other memories, is that the walls are moved around the nanowires themselves using recent discoveries in spin-orbitronics domain walls.  Very short pulses of current move all the backwards and forwards along the nano-wires. The walls – the magnetic bits – can be read and written by devices incorporated directly into the nanowires themselves, thereby eliminating any mechanical parts.

Source: https://www.cpfs.mpg.de/

China, Global Leader In NanoScience

Mobile phones, computers, cosmetics, bicyclesnanoscience is hiding in so many everyday items, wielding a huge influence on our lives at a microscale level. Scientists and engineers from around the world exchanged new findings and perceptions on nanotechnology at the recent 7th International Conference on Nanoscience and Technology (ChinaNANO 2017) in Beijing last week. China has become a nanotechnology powerhouse, according to a report released at the conference. China’s applied nanoscience research and the industrialization of nanotechnology have been developing steadily, with the number of nano-related patent applications ranking among the top in the world.

According to Bai Chunli, president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China faces new opportunities for nanoscience research and development as it builds the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology  (NCNST) and globally influential national science centers.

We will strengthen the strategic landscape and top-down design for developing nanoscience, which will contribute greatly to the country’s economy and society,” said Bai.

Nanoscience can be defined as the study of the interaction, composition, properties and manufacturing methods of materials at a nanometer scale. At such tiny scales, the physical, chemical and biological properties of materials are different from those at larger scales — often profoundly so.

For example, alloys that are weak or brittle become strong and ductile; compounds that are chemically inert become powerful catalysts. It is estimated that there are more than 1,600 nanotechnology-based consumer products on the market, including lightweight but sturdy tennis rackets, bicycles, suitcases, automobile parts and rechargeable batteries. Nanomaterials are used in hairdryers or straighteners to make them lighter and more durable. The secret of how sunscreens protect skin from sunburn lies in the nanometer-scale titanium dioxide or zinc oxide they contain.

In 2016, the world’s first one-nanometer transistor was created. It was made from carbon nanotubes and molybdenum disulphide, rather than silicon.
Carbon nanotubes or silver nanowires enable touch screens on computers and televisions to be flexible, said Zhu Xing, chief scientist (CNST). Nanotechnology is also having an increasing impact on healthcare, with progress in drug delivery, biomaterials, imaging, diagnostics, active implants and other therapeutic applications. The biggest current concern is the health threats of nanoparticles, which can easily enter body via airways or skin. Construction workers exposed to nanopollutants face increased health risks.

The report was co-produced by Springer Nature, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST) and the National Science Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

Source: http://www.shanghaidaily.com/

No More Visit To The Doctor’s Office

A visit to the doctor’s office can feel like the worst thing when you’re already sick. This small device is aimed at replacing physical face-to-face check ups. It’s made by Israel’s Tytocare, a leading telemedicine company. Their Tyto device allows patients to conduct examinations of organs and be diagnosed by remote clinicians.

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We basically replicate a face-to-face interaction with a remote clinician while allowing him to do a full physical examination, analysis and the diagnosis of a patient at home,” said Dedi Gilad, CEO of Tytocare.

The associated TytoApp guides users through complicated examinations. It can be used to check heart rate or temperature — as well as conduct examinations of the ears, throat and lungs. And it allows a clinician to interact with patients online or offline. It also represents a significant cost saving – in the US a basic primary care visit costs around 170 dollars, three times the cost of telemedicine appointments. The system was tested at Israel’s Schneider children’s hospital.

What we found was really remarkable, that there was almost no difference between the two types of examinations…But we must be careful about the use. There are certain diseases, certain complaints, that can not be answered by this kind of device and we should carefully judge case by case and be aware of the limitations of this device,”  explains Prof. Yehezkel Waisman, Director of The Emergency Medicine department at Schneider children hospital.

Telemedecine does have its critics, who believe that real-time encounters with a doctor will always be superior. But those behind it say it could drastically cut the number of face-to-face doctors’ visits and save money for healthcare providers and insurers.

Source: http://www.tytocare.com/
AND
http://www.reuters.com/

Move And Produce Electricity To Power Your Phone

Imagine slipping into a jacket, shirt or skirt that powers your cell phone, fitness tracker and other personal electronic devices as you walk, wave and even when you are sitting down. A new, ultrathin energy harvesting system developed at Vanderbilt University’s Nanomaterials and Energy Devices Laboratory has the potential to do just that. Based on battery technology and made from layers of black phosphorus that are only a few atoms thick, the new device generates small amounts of electricity when it is bent or pressed even at the extremely low frequencies characteristic of human motion.

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In the future, I expect that we will all become charging depots for our personal devices by pulling energy directly from our motions and the environment,” said Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering Cary Pint, who directed the research.
This is timely and exciting research given the growth of wearable devices such as exoskeletons and smart clothing, which could potentially benefit from Dr. Pint’s advances in materials and energy harvesting,” observed Karl Zelik, assistant professor of mechanical and biomedical engineering at Vanderbilt, an expert on the biomechanics of locomotion who did not participate in the device’s development.

Doctoral students Nitin Muralidharan and Mengya Lic o-led the effort to make and test the devices. When you look at Usain Bolt, you see the fastest man on Earth. When I look at him, I see a machine working at 5 Hertz, said Muralidharan.

The new energy harvesting system is described in a paper titled “Ultralow Frequency Electrochemical Mechanical Strain Energy Harvester using 2D Black Phosphorus Nanosheets” published  by the journal ACS Energy Letters.

Source: https://news.vanderbilt.edu/

Use The Phone And See 3D Content Without 3D Glasses

RED, the company known for making some truly outstanding high-end cinema cameras, is set to release a smartphone in Q1 of 2018 called the HYDROGEN ONE. RED says that it is a standalone, unlocked and fully-featured smartphone “operating on Android OS that just happens to add a few additional features that shatter the mold of conventional thinking.” Yes, you read that right. This phone will blow your mind, or something – and it will even make phone calls.

In a press release riddled with buzzwords broken up by linking verbs, RED praises their yet-to-be smartphone with some serious adjectives. If we were just shown this press release outside of living on RED‘s actual server, we would swear it was satire. Here are a smattering of phrases found in the release.

Incredible retina-riveting display
Nanotechnology
Holographic multi-view content
RED Hydrogen 4-View content
Assault your senses
Proprietary H3O algorithm
Multi-dimentional audio

  • There are two models of the phone, which run at different prices. The Aluminum model will cost $1,195, but anyone worth their salt is going to go for the $1,595 Titanium version. Gotta shed that extra weight, you know?

Those are snippets from just the first three sections, of which there are nine. I get hyping a product, but this reads like a catalog seen in the background of a science-fiction comedy, meant to sound ridiculous – especially in the context of a ficticious universe.

Except that this is real life.

After spending a few minutes removing all the glitter words from this release, it looks like it will be a phone using a display similar to what you get with the Nintendo 3DS, or what The Verge points out as perhaps better than the flopped Amazon Fire Phone. Essentially, you should be able to use the phone and see 3D content without 3D glasses. Nintendo has already proven that can work, however it can really tire out your eyes. As an owner of three different Nintendo 3DS consoles, I can say that I rarely use the 3D feature because of how it makes my eyes hurt. It’s an odd sensation. It is probalby why Nintendo has released a new handheld that has the same power as the 3DS, but dropping the 3D feature altogether.

Anyway, back to the HYDROGEN ONE, RED says that it will work in tandem with their cameras as a user interface and monitor. It will also display what RED is calling “holographic content,” which isn’t well-described by RED in this release. We can assume it is some sort of mixed-dimensional view that makes certain parts of a video or image stand out over the others.

Source: http://www.red.com/
AND
http://www.imaging-resource.com/

Nanoweapons Against North Korea

Unless you’re working in the field, you probably never heard about U.S. nanoweapons. This is intentional. The United States, as well as Russia and China, are spending billions of dollars per year developing nanoweapons, but all development is secret. Even after Pravda.ru’s June 6, 2016 headline, “US nano weapon killed Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez, scientists say,” the U.S. offered no response.

Earlier this year, May 5, 2017, North Korea claimed the CIA plotted to kill Kim Jong Un using a radioactive nano poison, similar to the nanoweapon Venezuelan scientists claim the U.S. used to assassinate former Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez. All major media covered North Korea’s claim. These accusations are substantial, but are they true? Let’s address this question.

Unfortunately, until earlier this year, nanoweapons gleaned little media attention. However, in March 2017 that changed with the publication of the book, Nanoweapons: A Growing Threat to Humanity (2017 Potomac Books), which inspired two articles. On March 9, 2017, American Security Today published “Nanoweapons: A Growing Threat to Humanity – Louis A. Del Monte,” and on March 17, 2017, CNBC published “Mini-nukes and mosquito-like robot weapons being primed for future warfare.” Suddenly, the genie was out of the bottle. The CNBC article became the most popular on their website for two days following its publication and garnered 6.5K shares. Still compared to other classes of military weapons, nanoweapons remain obscure. Factually, most people never even heard the term. If you find this surprising, recall most people never heard of stealth aircraft until their highly publicized use during the first Iraq war in 1990. Today, almost everyone that reads the news knows about stealth aircraft. This may become the case with nanoweapons, but for now, it remains obscure to the public.

Given their relative obscurity, we’ll start by defining nanoweapons. A nanoweapon is any military weapon that exploits the power of nanotechnology. This, of course, begs another question: What is nanotechnology? According to the United States National Nanotechnology Initiative’s website, nano.gov, “Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers.” To put this in simple terms, the diameter of a typical human hair equals 100,000 nanometers. This means nanotechnology is invisible to the naked eye or even under an optical microscope.

Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/

30 Billion Switches Onto The New IBM Nano-based Chip

IBM is clearly not buying into the idea that Moore’s Law is dead after it unveiled a tiny new transistor that could revolutionise the design, and size, of future devices. Along with Samsung and Globalfoundries, the tech firm has created a ‘breakthrough’ semiconducting unit made using stacks of nanosheets. The companies say they intend to use the transistors on new five nanometer (nm) chips that feature 30 billion switches on an area the size of a fingernail. When fully developed, the new chip will help with artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, and cloud computing.

For business and society to meet the demands of cognitive and cloud computing in the coming years, advancement in semiconductor technology is essential,” said Arvind Krishna, senior vice president, Hybrid Cloud, and director, IBM Research.

IBM has been developing nanometer sheets for the past 10 years and combined stacks of these tiny sheets using a process called Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to build the structure of the transistor.

Using EUV lithography, the width of the nanosheets can be adjusted continuously, all within a single manufacturing process or chip design,” IBM and the other firms said. This allows the transistors to be adjusted for the specific circuits they are to be used in.

Source: http://www.wired.co.uk/

How To Harness Heat To Power Computers

One of the biggest problems with computers, dating to the invention of the first one, has been finding ways to keep them cool so that they don’t overheat or shut down. Instead of combating the heat, two University of Nebraska–Lincoln engineers have embraced it as an alternative energy source that would allow computing at ultra-high temperatures. Sidy Ndao, assistant professor of mechanical and materials engineering, said his research group’s development of a nano-thermal-mechanical device, or thermal diode, came after flipping around the question of how to better cool computers.

thermal diode

If you think about it, whatever you do with electricity you should (also) be able to do with heat, because they are similar in many ways,” Ndao said. “In principle, they are both energy carriers. If you could control heat, you could use it to do computing and avoid the problem of overheating.”

A paper Ndao co-authored with Mahmoud Elzouka, a graduate student in mechanical and materials engineering, was published in the March edition of Scientific Reports. In it, they documented their device working in temperatures that approached 630 degrees Fahrenheit (332 degrees Celsius).

Source: http://news.unl.edu/