A team of researchers led by Caltech scientists has shown that nanoparticles can function to target tumors while avoiding adjacent healthy tissue in human cancer patients.
“Our work shows that this specificity, as previously demonstrated in preclinical animal studies, can in fact occur in humans“, says study leader Mark E. Davis, the Warren and Katharine Schlinger Professor of Chemical Engineering at Caltech. “The ability to target tumors is one of the primary reasons for using nanoparticles as therapeutics to treat solid tumors.”
The scientists demonstrate that nanoparticle-based therapies can act as a “precision medicine” for targeting tumors while leaving healthy tissue intact. In the study, Davis and his colleagues examined gastric tumors from nine human patients both before and after infusion with a drug—camptothecin—that was chemically bound to nanoparticles about 30 nanometers in size.
“Our nanoparticles are so small that if one were to increase the size to that of a soccer ball, the increase in size would be on the same order as going from a soccer ball to the planet Earth,” says Davis, who is also a member of the City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center in Duarte, California, where the clinical trial was conducted.
The team found that 24 to 48 hours after the nanoparticles were administered, they had localized in the tumor tissues and released their drug cargo, and the drug had had the intended biological effects of inhibiting two proteins that are involved in the progression of the cancer. Equally important, both the nanoparticles and the drug were absent from healthy tissue adjacent to the tumors.
The findings, have been published online in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.