A Single Drop Of Blood To Test Agressive Prostate Cancer

A new diagnostic developed by Alberta scientists will allow men to bypass painful biopsies to test for aggressive prostate cancer. The test incorporates a unique nanotechnology platform to make the diagnostic using only a single drop of blood, and is significantly more accurate than current screening methods.

The Extracellular Vesicle Fingerprint Predictive Score (EV-FPS) test uses machine learning to combine information from millions of cancer cell nanoparticles in the blood to recognize the unique fingerprint of aggressive cancer. The diagnostic, developed by members of the Alberta Prostate Cancer Research Initiative (APCaRI), was evaluated in a group of 377 Albertan men who were referred to their urologist with suspected prostate cancer. It was found that EV-FPS correctly identified men with aggressive prostate cancer 40 percent more accurately than the most common test—Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) blood test—in wide use today.

Higher sensitivity means that our test will miss fewer aggressive cancers,” said John Lewis, the Alberta Cancer Foundation‘s Frank and Carla Sojonky Chair of Prostate Cancer Research at the University of Alberta. “For this kind of test you want the sensitivity to be as high as possible because you don’t want to miss a single cancer that should be treated.”

According to the team, current tests such as the PSA and digital rectal exam (DRE) often lead to unneeded biopsies. Lewis says more than 50 per cent of men who undergo biopsy do not have prostate cancer, yet suffer the pain and side effects of the procedure such as infection or sepsis. Less than 20 per cent of men who receive a are diagnosed with the aggressive form of prostate cancer that could most benefit from treatment.

It’s estimated that successful implementation of the EV-FPS test could eventually eliminate up to 600-thousand unnecessary biopsies, 24-thousand hospitalizations and up to 50 per cent of unnecessary treatments for prostate each year in North America alone. Beyond cost savings to the health care system, the researchers say the diagnostic test will have a dramatic impact on the health care experience and quality of life for men and their families.

Compared to elevated total PSA alone, the EV-FPS test can more accurately predict the result of prostate biopsy in previously unscreened men,” said Adrian Fairey, urologist at the Northern Alberta Urology Centre and member of APCaRI. “This information can be used by clinicians to determine which men should be advised to undergo immediate prostate biopsy and which men should be advised to defer and continue screening.”

Source:  https://medicalxpress.com/

Artificial Blowhole Generates Electricity From Ocean Waves

Renewable energy companies want to tap the potential of waves. It’s proved tough to commercialise. But Australian firm Wave Swell Energy thinks it’s turned the tide on wave energy. Its device harnesses wave power like an artificial blowhole.

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The waves pass by and it causes the water level inside this artificial chamber, which is open underneath the water, to rise and fall and as it does so it compresses air, and then creates a partial vacuum as it’s falling and we use that motion to drive an air turbine,” says Tom Deniss, CEO of the company Wave Swell Energy.

The oscillating water column concept has been used before, but the Wave Swell model comes with a difference.  “We use uni-directional flow, in other hands, air-flow simply coming in one direction past the turbine, whereas all other attempts have used bidirectional flow. Independent tests found the model was at least twice as efficient as a conventional device. When fully constructed, the device will measure 20 metres by 20 metres, with the air turbine sitting above the water. It will operate off the coast of King Island – in Bass Strait – in May next year, adds Tom Deniss.  “The excellent wave climate there and the support of the local community meant that it was just an ideal location for us to use as a demonstration of the commercial viability of our technology.”
The company hopes to rival the cost of the cheapest global energy sources in five years….finally untapping the power of the ocean.

Source: http://waveswellenergy.com.au/
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http://www.reuters.com/

Super Efficient Nanowires shape the future of electronics

A group of researchers at the Basque Excellence Research Center into Polymers (POLYMAT), the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), the University of Barcelona, the Institute of Bioengineering of Barcelona (IBEC), and the University of Aveiro, and led by Aurelio Mateo-Alonso, the Ikerbasque research professor at POLYMAT, have developed a new suite of molecular wires or nanowires that are opening up new horizons in molecular electronics.

The growing demand for increasingly smaller electronic devices is prompting the need to produce circuits whose components are also as small as possible, and this is calling for fresh approaches in their design.

Molecular electronics has sparked great interest because the manufacture of electronic circuits using molecules would entail a reduction in their size. Nanowires are conducting wires on a molecular scale that carry the current inside these circuits. That is why the efficiency of these wires is crucially important.

In fact, one of the main novelties in this new suite of nanowires developed by the group led by Aurelio Mateo lies in their high efficiency, which constitutes a step forward in miniaturizing electronic circuits.
The findings have been published today in the journal Nature Communications.

Source: https://www.ehu.eus/

Farming in Brooklyn

Erik Groszyk used to spend all day at his desk working as an investment banker. Now he cultivates his own urban farm out of a 40-foot shipping container in a Brooklyn parking lot.

I just found myself not satisfied and kind of yearning for more,’ says Erik Groszyk.  The Harvard grad is one of 10 ‘entrepreneurial farmers,’ selected from a batch of 500 applicants, working with Square Roots, an indoor urban farming company launched in November that grows local food year-round in the heart of New York City. Now, six months into the program, Groszyk said his training in farming, artificial lighting, water chemistry and nutrient balance allows him to harvest roughly 15 to 20 pounds of produce each week.

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People have lost trust in the food system, right? They want real food where they know their farmer, they know where their food is coming from, and they trust their food,‘ explains Tobias Peggs, Square Roots co-founder. He, along with his co-founder Kimbal Musk, the younger brother of Tesla‘s Elon Musk, aim to spread out to as many American cities as they possibly can in the next five to 10 years.

By 2050 there will be nine billion people on the planet and 70 percent will leave in urban areas. These people need feeding, and they will want local, real food,” he adds.
Square Roots sells food locally. It also plans to launch more urban farms, for others to operate, and will own a share in those farms’ revenues as well. Peggs says the company, by getting hyper-local, is looking to join a global food revolution. ‘America’s is the world’s great, greatest exporter. Right? We exported rock and roll, we exported Levi’s jeans. We also exported obesity. And the feeling is, if we can solve that, in America, through initiatives like Square Roots, bringing real food to everyone, getting more people on a healthy, low-cost, sustainable food system, that we’ll also be able to export that solution.’

Source: https://squarerootsgrow.com/
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All Carbon Spin Transistor Is Quicker And Smaller

A researcher with the Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science at UT Dallas has designed a novel computing system made solely from carbon that might one day replace the silicon transistors that power today’s electronic devices.

The concept brings together an assortment of existing nanoscale technologies and combines them in a new way,” said Dr. Joseph S. Friedman, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at UT Dallas who conducted much of the research while he was a doctoral student at Northwestern University.

The resulting all-carbon spin logic proposal, published by lead author Friedman and several collaborators in the June 5 edition of the online journal Nature Communications, is a computing system that Friedman believes could be made smaller than silicon transistors, with increased performance.

Today’s electronic devices are powered by transistors, which are tiny silicon structures that rely on negatively charged electrons moving through the silicon, forming an electric current. Transistors behave like switches, turning current on and off.

In addition to carrying a charge, electrons have another property called spin, which relates to their magnetic properties. In recent years, engineers have been investigating ways to exploit the spin characteristics of electrons to create a new class of transistors and devices called “spintronics.”

Friedman’s all-carbon, spintronic switch functions as a logic gate that relies on a basic tenet of electromagnetics: As an electric current moves through a wire, it creates a magnetic field that wraps around the wire. In addition, a magnetic field near a two-dimensional ribbon of carbon — called a graphene nanoribbon — affects the current flowing through the ribbon. In traditional, silicon-based computers, transistors cannot exploit this phenomenon. Instead, they are connected to one another by wires. The output from one transistor is connected by a wire to the input for the next transistor, and so on in a cascading fashion.

Source: http://www.utdallas.edu/

Scalable Catalyst Produces Cheap Pure Hydrogen

The “clean-energy economy” always seems a few steps away but never quite here. Fossil fuels still power transportation, heating and cooling, and manufacturing, but a team of scientists from Penn State and Florida State University have come one step closer to inexpensive, clean hydrogen fuel with a lower cost and industrially scalable catalyst that produces pure hydrogen through a low-energy water-splitting process.

Hydrogen fuel cells can boost a clean-energy economy not only in the transportation sector, where fast fueling and vehicle range outpace battery-powered vehicles, but also to store electrical energy produced by solar and wind. This research is another step forward to reaching that goal.
Energy is the most important issue of our time, and for energy, fuel cells are crucially important, and then for fuel cells, hydrogen is most important,” said Yu Lei, Penn State doctoral student and first author of an ACS Nano paper describing the water-splitting catalyst she and her colleagues theoretically predicted and then synthesized in the lab. “People have been searching for a good catalyst that can efficiently split water into hydrogen and oxygen. During this process, there will be no side products that are not environmentally friendly.”

The current industrial method of producing hydrogen — steam reforming of methane — results in the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Other methods use waste heat, from sources such as advanced nuclear power plants or concentrated solar power, both of which face technical challenges for commercial feasibility. Another industrial process uses platinum as the catalyst to drive the water-splitting process. Although platinum is a near-perfect catalyst, it is also expensive. A cheaper catalyst could make hydrogen a reasonable alternative to fossil fuels in transportation, and power fuel cells for energy storage applications.

Molybdenum disulfide has been predicted as a possible replacement for platinum, because the Gibbs free energy for hydrogen absorption is close to zero,” said Mauricio Terrones, professor of physics, materials science and engineering, and chemistry, Penn State. The lower the Gibbs free energy, the less external energy has to be applied to produce a chemical reaction.

Source: http://news.psu.edu/

Cellulose-based Ink For 3D Printing

Empa (Switzerland) researchers have succeeded in developing an environmentally friendly ink for 3D printing based on cellulose nanocrystals. This technology can be used to fabricate microstructures with outstanding mechanical properties, which have promising potential uses in implants and other biomedical applications.

Cellulose, along with lignin and hemicellulose, is one of the main constituents of wood. The biopolymer consists of glucose chains organized in long fibrous structures. In some places the cellulose fibrils exhibit a more ordered structure.

In order to produce 3D microstructured materials for composite applications, for instance, Empa researchers have been using a 3D printing method called “Direct Ink Writing” for the past year. During this process, a viscous substance – the printing ink – is squeezed out of the printing nozzles and deposited onto a surface, pretty much like a pasta machine. Empa researchers Gilberto Siqueira and Tanja Zimmermann from the Laboratory for Applied Wood Materials have now succeeded, together with Jennifer Lewis from Harvard University and André Studart from the ETH Zürich, in developing a new, environmentally friendly 3D printing ink made from cellulose nanocrystals (CNC).
The places with a higher degree of order appear in a more crystalline form. And it is these sections, which we can purify with acid, that we require for our research“, explains Siqueira. The final product is cellulose nanocrystals, tiny rod-like structures that are 120 nanometers long and have a diameter of 6.5 nanometers. And it is these nanocrystals that researchers wanted to use to create a new type of environmentally friendly 3D printing ink.They have now succeeded that  their new inks contain a full 20 percent CNC.

The biggest challenge was in attaining a viscous elastic consistency that could also be squeezed through the 3D printer nozzles“, says Siqueira. The ink must be “thick” enough so that the printed material stays “in shape” before drying or hardening, and doesn’t immediately melt out of shape again.

Source: https://www.empa.ch/

How Yo Make Sea Water Drinkable

Graphene-oxide membranes have attracted considerable attention as promising candidates for new filtration technologies. Now the much sought-after development of making membranes capable of sieving common salts has been achieved. New research demonstrates the real-world potential of providing clean drinking water for millions of people who struggle to access adequate clean water sources. Graphene-oxide membranes developed at the National Graphene Institute have already demonstrated the potential of filtering out small nanoparticles, organic molecules, and even large salts. Until now, however, they couldn’t be used for sieving common salts used in desalination technologies, which require even smaller sieves. Previous research at The University of Manchester found that if immersed in water, graphene-oxide membranes become slightly swollen and smaller salts flow through the membrane along with water, but larger ions or molecules are blocked.

The Manchester-based group have now further developed these graphene membranes and found a strategy to avoid the swelling of the membrane when exposed to water. The pore size in the membrane can be precisely controlled which can sieve common salts out of salty water and make it safe to drink.

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Realisation of scalable membranes with uniform pore size down to atomic scale is a significant step forward and will open new possibilities for improving the efficiency of desalination technology,” says Professor Rahul Raveendran Nair.

The new findings from a group of scientists at The University of Manchester have been published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

Source: http://www.manchester.ac.uk/
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Metal 3D Printing Withstands Extreme Pressure And Heat

3D printed metal turbine blades able to withstand extreme pressure have been successfully tested by Siemens. It opens the way to develop high pressure components for power generators and other industries, such as aeronautics. These blades can survive temperatures above 1,250 Celsius and pressures similar to the weight of a double-decker bus.

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“To have this rotating part running is a breakthrough because it is submitted to these extreme loading… It rotates with 13,600 rotations-per-minute which means it is the most highly loaded component in the whole gas turbine. So this blade that weighs 180 grams will weigh 11 tonnes while rotating with this speed,” says Jenny Nilsson, Team leader for additive manufacturing at Siemens.

Last year Siemens bought British-based Material Solutions, where the metal-based printing is being perfected. A computer-aided design model is first sent to one of these machines. Precision lasers are then fired at a thin layer of metal powder.

This is the nickel superalloy powder. This metallic powder is deposited in 20 micron layer thickness and then the laser melts the part,“explains Clotilde Ravoux, system engineer at Material Solutions.

Ultra-thin layers are added one by one, building up the part. Testing is ongoing and Siemens can’t say when these blades will be commercially produced. But they say it reduces the design-to-testing time from years to months.  “When you apply casting procedures you will probably take one to one and a half years to provide you with these blades because of their long lead-time for tooling. And by applying additive manufacturing we could significantly shorten lead time by down to three months,” adds  Christoph Haberland, manufacturing engineering.

General Electric introduced its first 3D-printed aircraft engine component into service last July. While Boeing is using metal-based 3D printing to drastically cut the production costs of its 787 Dreamliner.

Source: https://www.siemens.com/
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http://www.reuters.com/

Powerful Anti-Aging Cream Using Nanotechnology

Wrinkle-smoothing hyaluronic acid can now be introduced into the skin without injections, thanks to an Israeli research team that spent years developing a nanotechnology for this purpose. Facial wrinkles, lines and sagging result from the body’s gradual loss of its ability to produce hyaluronic acid. In the past, treatments of hyaluronic acid couldn’t get into the skin’s deepest layers except by injection or in a powder form that must be mixed with water and therefore loses its potency.

That problem was solved by a research team headed by Prof. Rachel Lubart and Prof. Aharon Gedanken from the departments of chemistry and physics and Bar-Ilan University’s Institute for Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials (BINA). The Israeli scientists achieved this breakthrough by micronizingbreaking down its particles to the size of a micronhyaluronic acid. Based on this development, Israeli cosmetic pharmaceuticals pioneer Hava Zingboim has created Prophecy, the first-ever cream formula that allows hyaluronic acid to penetrate into the deeper skin layers.

Once they reach nano size, the hyaluronic acid molecules are transferred into the formula, which enables them to remain nano-sized throughout the process. The effect of the micronized hyaluronic acid applied to the skin is identical to the effect achieved when injecting hyaluronic acid into the skin, with the benefits of enhanced skin texture and a younger look.
According to a university statement, this is the only technology in the world capable of creating small molecules that remain small even when applied to the skin.

Source: https://www.israel21c.org/
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Startup Promises Immortality Through AI, Nanotechnology, and Cloning

One of the things humans have plotted for centuries is escaping death, with little to show for it, until now. One startup called Humai has a plan to make immortality a reality. The CEO, Josh Bocanegra says when the time comes and all the necessary advancements are in place, we’ll be able to freeze your brain, create a new, artificial body, repair any damage to your brain, and transfer it into your new body. This process could then be repeated in perpetuityHUMAI stands for: Human Resurrection through Artificial Intelligence. The technology to accomplish this isn’t here now, but on the horizon. Bocanegra says they’ll reach this Promethean feat within 30 years. 2045 is currently their target date. So how do they plan to do it?

We’re using artificial intelligence and nanotechnology to store data of conversational styles, behavioral patterns, thought processes and information about how your body functions from the inside-out. This data will be coded into multiple sensor technologies, which will be built into an artificial body with the brain of a deceased human, explains the website.

Source: https://www.facebook.com/humaitech/
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http://bigthink.com/

Electric Flying City Taxi

German company Lilium beats Google and Uber to successfully test a VTOL jet that could be used as a city taxi. Munich-based Lilium, backed by investors who include Skype co-founder Niklas Zennström, said the planned five-seater jet, which will be capable of vertical take-off and landing, (VTOL) could be used for urban air-taxi and ride-sharing services.

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Lilium said its jet, with a range of 190 miles and cruising speed of 186mph, is the only electric aircraft capable of both vertical take-off and jet-powered flight. The jet, whose power consumption is comparable to an electric car, could offer passenger flights at prices comparable to normal taxis but with speeds five times faster.

In flight tests, a two-seat prototype executed manoeuvres that included a mid-air transition from hover mode – like a drone – to wing-borne flight – like a conventional aircraft, Lilium said.
Potential competitors to Lilium Jet include much bigger players such as Airbus, the maker of commercial airliners and helicopters that aims to test a prototype self-piloted, single-seat “flying car” later in 2017. The Slovakian firm AeroMobil said at a car show in Monaco it would start taking orders for a hybrid flying car that can drive on roads. It said it planned production from 2020. But makers of “flying cars” still face hurdles, including convincing regulators and the public that their products can be used safely. Governments are still grappling with regulations for drones and driverless cars.

Source: https://www.theguardian.com/