How To Fight Against Resistant SuperBugs

British biopharma firm Helperby Therapeutics, a spin-out drug discovery company from St George’s University of London, has developed a novel answer to the clear and present danger of antimicrobial resistanceAntibiotic Resistance Breakers (ARBs). Doctors increasingly rely on last resort antibiotics such as carbapenems and colistin, but as harmful bacteria continue to mutate, this final line of resistance will eventually failHelperby’s solution to this critical problem, and ground-breaking innovation, is Antibiotic Resistance Breakers – novel technology that rejuvenates existing antibiotics into long-term effective combination therapies.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the immediate threat from three critical priority pathogens for which there is currently limited antibiotic protection:

  • CRE (Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Carbapenem-resistant)
  • Acinetobacter (Carbapenem-resistant)

The most dangerous bacteria are CRE, causing severe and often fatal infections such as septicemia and pneumonia.CRE has spread from Asia into Europe and the USA, is epidemic and doubles every two years. 

Helperby’s Antibiotic Resistance Breakers rejuvenate existing antibiotics, enabling them to puncture the tough cell wall of CRE and other evolving superbugs to allow existing last-resort antibiotics to effectively do their work. The ARB rejuvenation process can be performed repeatedly on different combinations of existing antibiotics to outsmart resistance.

CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE VIDEO

New classes of antibiotics are difficult to develop, and none have been marketed for over 30 years,” said Prof Anthony Coates, chief scientific officer of Helperby Therapeutics. “It is therefore imperative we keep existing antibiotics working. We are one of only six companies in the world that have new antibiotics in clinical development which are potentially effective against all three of WHO’s critical priority pathogens,” he added.

ARBs are novel, effective and transferable, potentially producing many variants of new antibiotic combination. One ARB can be applied to multiple different classes of antibiotics, reducing the size, time and resource in Phase III clinical trials normally required for new chemical entities.

Source: https://www.thepharmaletter.com/

Multi-AntiOxidant Nanoparticles Fight Sepsis

With an incidence of 31.5 million worldwide and a mortality of around 17%, sepsis remains the most common cause of death in hospitalized patients, even in industrialized countries where antibiotics and critical care facilities are readily available. While this disease begins as a serious infection, sepsis‘ life-threatening organ failure is due to an excessive inflammatory response.

By overproducing oxygen free radicals, the immunity of the host itself paradoxically leads to an increase in morbidity and mortality. A team of researchers from Center for Nanoparticle Research, within the  (IBS), with colleagues from the Seoul National University Hospital synthesized nanoparticles with superior antioxidant properties to treat sepsis in rats and mice by removing harmful oxygen radicals and reducing inflammatory responses.

Under normal physiological conditions, oxygen radicals, also called reactive oxygen species (ROS), are created as by-products of several cellular reactions and their concentration is counterbalanced by antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). However in patients with severe infections, the production of ROS as well as reactive nitrogen species (RNS), increases dramatically, while the body’s antioxidant capacity may be compromised. As a consequence, the ROS and RNS accumulation can lead to damages to DNA, proteins, and lipid membranes.

All major diseases are related to ROS,” explains HYEON Taeghwan, the director of the Center for Nanoparticle Research. “Cellular damage caused by ROS has been found not only in sepsis, but also in cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases, just to name a few.”

Ceria nanoparticles replace the function of antioxidant enzymes. Cerium trivalent ions (Ce3+) play a decisive role in eliminating ROS. Thanks to the addition of zirconium ions, the scientists could create a new type of nanoparticles, named 7CZ (containing 70% Ce ions and 30% Zr ions), with optimized nanoparticle size and Ce3+ content. The nanoparticles described in this study are smaller, just two nanometers in size. Moreover, they have a higher percent of Ce3+. When tested in mice with sepsis, the survival rate increased 2.5 fold in the 7CZ NP-treated group compared to the control. Scientists found that 7CZ nanoparticles can infiltrate the damaged tissue and act locally at the infection site.

Treating sepsis has been an old challenge for physicians worldwide,” emphasizes LEE Seung-Hoon, professor of department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital. “This study shows the possibility of overcoming the limits of modern medicine with nanotechnology.”

This study has been published in the journal Angewandte Chemie.

Source: ,http://www.ibs.re.kr/

How To Kill Bacteria Using Gold Nanoparticles And Light

Researchers have developed a new technique for killing bacteria in seconds using highly porous gold nanodisks and light. The method could one day help hospitals treat some common infections without using antibiotics, which could help reduce the risk of spreading antibiotics resistance.

killing bacteriaWe showed that all of the bacteria were killed pretty quickly . . . within 5 to 25 seconds. That’s a very fast process,” said corresponding author Wei-Chuan Shih, a professor in the electrical and computer engineering department, University of Houston, Texas.

Scientists create gold nanoparticles in the lab by dissolving gold, reducing the metal into smaller and smaller disconnected pieces until the size must be measured in nanometers. One nanometer equals a billionth of a meter. A human hair is between 50,000 to 100,000 nanometers in diameter. Once miniaturized, the particles can be crafted into various shapes including rods, triangles or disks.

Previous research shows that gold nanoparticles absorb light strongly, converting the photons quickly into heat and reaching temperatures hot enough to destroy various types of nearby cells – including cancer and bacterial cells.

The research has been published in Optical Materials Express, a journal published by The Optical Society
Source: http://www.osa.org/

Nanotechnology Prevents Bone Infection

Leading scientists at the University of Sheffield (UK) have discovered nanotechnology could hold the key to preventing deep bone infections, after developing a treatment which prevents bacteria and other harmful microorganisms growing.

The pioneering research, led by the University of Sheffield’s School of Clinical Dentistry, showed applying small quantities of antibiotic to the surface of medical devices, from small dental implants to hip replacements, could protect patients from serious infection.

Scientists used revolutionary nanotechnology to work on small polymer layers inside implants which measure between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm) – a human hair is approximately 100,000 nm wide.

bone infectionLead researcher Paul Hatton, Professor of Biomaterials Sciences at the University of Sheffield, said: “Microorganisms can attach themselves to implants or replacements during surgery and once they grab onto a non-living surface they are notoriously difficult to treat which causes a lot of problems and discomfort for the patient.

“By making the actual surface of the hip replacement or dental implant inhospitable to these harmful microorganisms, the risk of deep bone infection is substantially reduced.

“Our research shows that applying small quantities of antibiotic to a surface between the polymer layers which make up each device could prevent not only the initial infection but secondary infection – it is like getting between the layers of an onion skin.”

Bone infection affects thousands of patients every year and results in a substantial cost to the NHS.

Source: http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/

Teixobactin, New King of Antibiotics

North­eastern Uni­ver­sity Pro­fessor Kim Lewis and his team have pre­sented a new antibi­otic that kills pathogens without encoun­tering any detectable resis­tance.
This new antibi­otic, called teixobactin,the first dis­covery of an antibi­otic to which resis­tance by muta­tions of pathogens have not been iden­ti­fied. It also presents a promising oppor­tu­nity to building upon these find­ings and ulti­mately develop drugs that can treat chronic infec­tions in humans caused by staphy­lo­coccus aureus, or MRSA, that are highly resis­tant to antibi­otics, as well as tuber­cu­losis, which involves a com­bi­na­tion of ther­a­pies with neg­a­tive side effects.
growing bacteriaA novel method for growing bacteria has finally yielded a promising new antibiotic which could be a major breakthrough ending a decades-long drought in antibiotic discovery.

Lewis and his col­leagues say pathogens’ resis­tance to antibi­otics is causing a public health crisis, one in which infec­tions have for years remained one step ahead of researchers. But he and North­eastern biology pro­fessor Slava Epstein devel­oped a novel method for growing uncul­tured bacteria — a pre­vi­ously untapped source of antibi­otics beyond those cre­ated by syn­thetic means. Their approach involves the iChip, a minia­ture device that can iso­late and help grow single cells in their nat­ural envi­ron­ment. Their inno­v­a­tive method to bring the envi­ron­ment into the lab holds great promise in helping to combat this health crisis.
Source: http://www.northeastern.edu/