Magnetic Fields To Remotely Control Body Movements

Scientists have used magnetism to activate tiny groups of cells in the brain, inducing bodily movements that include running, rotating and losing control of the extremities — an achievement that could lead to advances in studying and treating neurological disease. The technique researchers developed is called magneto-thermal stimulation. It gives neuroscientists a powerful new tool: a remote, minimally invasive way to trigger activity deep inside the brain, turning specific cells on and off to study how these changes affect physiology.

Magnetic nanoparticles stimulate neurons deep in the brain to evoke body movements of mice. This image shows a section of a mouse brain with injected magnetic nanoparticles (colored red) covering targeted cells in the striatum

There is a lot of work being done now to map the neuronal circuits that control behavior and emotions,” says lead researcher Arnd Pralle, PhD, a professor of physics in the University at Buffalo College of Arts and Sciences. “How is the computer of our mind working? The technique we have developed could aid this effort greatly.”

Understanding how the brain works — how different parts of the organ communicate with one another and control behavior — is key to developing therapies for diseases that involve the injury or malfunction of specific sets of neurons. Traumatic brain injuries, Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and peripheral paralysis all fall into this category.

The advances reported by Pralle’s team could also aid scientists seeking to treat ailments such as depression and epilepsy directly through brain stimulation.

Source: http://www.buffalo.edu/

How To Generate Any Cell Within The Patient’s Own Body

Researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and Ohio State’s College of Engineering have developed a new technology, Tissue Nanotransfection (TNT), that can generate any cell type of interest for treatment within the patient’s own body. This technology may be used to repair injured tissue or restore function of aging tissue, including organs, blood vessels and nerve cells.

By using our novel nanochip technology (nanocomputer), injured or compromised organs can be replaced. We have shown that skin is a fertile land where we can grow the elements of any organ that is declining,” said Dr. Chandan Sen, director of Ohio State’s Center for Regenerative Medicine & Cell Based Therapies, who co-led the study with L. James Lee, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering with Ohio State’s College of Engineering in collaboration with Ohio State’s Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center.

Researchers studied mice and pigs in these experiments. In the study, researchers were able to reprogram skin cells to become vascular cells in badly injured legs that lacked blood flow. Within one week, active blood vessels appeared in the injured leg, and by the second week, the leg was saved. In lab tests, this technology was also shown to reprogram skin cells in the live body into nerve cells that were injected into brain-injured mice to help them recover from stroke.

This is difficult to imagine, but it is achievable, successfully working about 98 percent of the time. With this technology, we can convert skin cells into elements of any organ with just one touch. This process only takes less than a second and is non-invasive, and then you’re off. The chip does not stay with you, and the reprogramming of the cell starts. Our technology keeps the cells in the body under immune surveillance, so immune suppression is not necessary,” said Sen, who also is executive director of Ohio State’s Comprehensive Wound Center.

Results of the regenerative medicine study have been published in the journal  Nature Nanotechnology.

Source: https://news.osu.edu/

New Brain Death Pathway In Alzheimer’s Identified

Findings of team led by the Arizona State University (ASU) scientists offer hope for therapies targeting cell loss in the brain, an inevitable and devastating outcome of Alzheimer’s progression
Alzheimer’s disease tragically ravages the brains, memories and, ultimately, personalities of its victims. Now affecting 5 million Americans, Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth-leading cause of death in the U.S., and a cure for Alzheimer’s remains elusive, as the exact biological events that trigger it are still unknown.

In a new study, Arizona State University-Banner Health neuroscientist Salvatore Oddo and his colleagues from Phoenix’s Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) — as well as the University of California, Irvine, and Mount Sinai in New York — have identified a new way for brain cells to become fated to die during Alzheimer’s disease. The research team has found the first evidence that the activation of a biological pathway called necroptosis, which causes neuronal loss, is closely linked with Alzheimer’s severity, cognitive decline and extreme loss of tissue and brain weight that are all advanced hallmarks of the disease.

We anticipate that our findings will spur a new area of Alzheimer’s disease research focused on further detailing the role of necroptosis and developing new therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking it,” said Oddo, the lead author of this study, and scientist at the ASU-Banner Neurodegenerative Disease Research Center at the Biodesign Institute and associate professor in the School of Life Sciences.

Necroptosis, which causes cells to burst from the inside out and die, is triggered by a triad of proteins. It has been shown to play a central role in multiple sclerosis and Lou Gehrig’s disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS), and now for the first time, also in Alzheimer’s disease.

There is no doubt that the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease have fewer neurons,” explained Oddo. “The brain is much smaller and weighs less; it shrinks because neurons are dying. That has been known for 100 years, but until now, the mechanism wasn’t understood.
The findings appear in the advanced online edition of Nature Neuroscience.

Source: https://asunow.asu.edu/

How To Re-Wire The Brains Of People With Depression

Doctors in California say magnetic stimulation can help ‘rewire‘ the brains of people with depression, offering hope for patients whose condition is not improved by medication or therapy. Depression is one of the most common forms of mental illness, affecting more than 350 million people worldwide. Bob Holmes is one of them.

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I struggled with that for many years, didn’t know really what to do, tried to pull myself through it. And then ultimately when I got into my forties, I wasn’t successful,” says Bob Holmes, who suffers from He has been receiving transcranial magnetic stimulation at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), a treatment that beams targeted magnetic pulses deep inside his brain. Doctors say the therapy can effectivelyrewire‘ the brain by changing how brain circuits are arranged.

(SOUNDBITE) (English) ANDREW LEUCHTER, DIRECTOR OF THE SEMEL INSTITUTE’S TMS CLINICAL AND RESEARCH SERVICE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES, SAYING:

By pulsing it with energy repeatedly, we’re changing the way that area works, but also changing the way the whole brain network works,” explains Andrew Leuchter,Director of the Semel Institute (UCLA).

For Holmes, the treatment has been life changing.  “I would recommend it a hundred percent. I have spoken to a number of people who have depression, given them my opinion, and I think it’s a wonderful program. It’s been a life-saver for me, and I’m very grateful that I found it, and I’m very grateful for the people here,” adds Holmes.

Doctors hope the newest generation of equipment could decrease the length of a treatment session from over 35 minutes down to three minutes, allowing a patient to complete a course in two weeks and bringing the therapy to even more people with depression.

Source: http://newsroom.ucla.edu/
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Startup Promises Immortality Through AI, Nanotechnology, and Cloning

One of the things humans have plotted for centuries is escaping death, with little to show for it, until now. One startup called Humai has a plan to make immortality a reality. The CEO, Josh Bocanegra says when the time comes and all the necessary advancements are in place, we’ll be able to freeze your brain, create a new, artificial body, repair any damage to your brain, and transfer it into your new body. This process could then be repeated in perpetuityHUMAI stands for: Human Resurrection through Artificial Intelligence. The technology to accomplish this isn’t here now, but on the horizon. Bocanegra says they’ll reach this Promethean feat within 30 years. 2045 is currently their target date. So how do they plan to do it?

We’re using artificial intelligence and nanotechnology to store data of conversational styles, behavioral patterns, thought processes and information about how your body functions from the inside-out. This data will be coded into multiple sensor technologies, which will be built into an artificial body with the brain of a deceased human, explains the website.

Source: https://www.facebook.com/humaitech/
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A Brain-computer Interface To Combat The Rise of AI

Elon Musk is attempting to combat the rise of artificial intelligence (AI) with the launch of his latest venture, brain-computer interface company NeuralinkLittle is known about the startup, aside from what has been revealed in a Wall Street Journal report, but says sources have described it as “neural lace” technology that is being engineered by the company to allow humans to seamlessly communicate with technology without the need for an actual, physical interface. The company has also been registered in California as a medical research entity because Neuralink’s initial focus will be on using the described interface to help with the symptoms of chronic conditions, from epilepsy to depression. This is said to be similar to how deep brain stimulation controlled by an implant helps  Matt Eagles, who has Parkinson’s, manage his symptoms effectively. This is far from the first time Musk has shown an interest in merging man and machine. At a Tesla launch in Dubai earlier this year, the billionaire spoke about the need for humans to become cyborgs if we are to survive the rise of artificial intelligence.

cyborg woman

Over time I think we will probably see a closer merger of biological intelligence and digital intelligence,”CNBC reported him as saying at the time. “It’s mostly about the bandwidth, the speed of the connection between your brain and the digital version of yourself, particularly output.” Transhumanism, the enhancement of humanity’s capabilities through science and technology, is already a living reality for many people, to varying degrees. Documentary-maker Rob Spence replaced one of his own eyes with a video camera in 2008; amputees are using prosthetics connected to their own nerves and controlled using electrical signals from the brain; implants are helping tetraplegics regain independence through the BrainGate project.

Former director of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Arati Prabhakar, comments: “From my perspective, which embraces a wide swathe of research disciplines, it seems clear that we humans are on a path to a more symbiotic union with our machines.

Source: http://www.wired.co.uk/

Mental Viagra

As Valentines Day approaches, love may be in the air…. but it’s also in the mind. Scientists in London say a natural hormone – appropriately named kisspeptinenhances brain regions associated with sex and love. In placebo-controlled trials, 29 healthy young men were injected with kisspeptin and their brains scanned using MRI.

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During the MRI they performed tasks designed to activate certain areas of the brain. So we used tasks to activate the sexual arousal centres of the brain and task to activate the romance sensors of the brain using images. And we observed that kisspeptin boosted the activity in sexual arousal and romantic circuits in the brain,” says Dr. Alexander Comninos, Endocrinologist at Imperial College  London.

Kisspeptin is found in all men and women, and is vital for stimulating puberty. “So there’s a link, not just with the hormones, but also the stimulation of reproductive hormones but also stimulating how we perceive sexual images in the brain, and that’s what the really exciting part of this study been; is how for the first time having a link between a hormone that’s stimulating reproductive hormones, but also how our brains perceive sexual images,” explains Waljit Dhillo, Professor in Endocrinology at Imperial College London .

Psychological sexual disorders can make it difficult for couples to conceive. Biological factors play a large part, but the role of the brain and emotion can’t be overlooked. A kisspeptin-based therapy could be an answer, say researchers. It differs from drugs like Viagra, which only trigger a physiological response. “Viagra is very different. So Viagra will cause vasodilation, it will make the vessels essentially dilate, blood will go down to the genital area. So it’s a completely different action, it’s mechanical if you like. Whereas this is much more psychological in terms of its altering how we perceive sexual images in our brains. So it’s a completely different mechanism of action“, adds Professor Dhillo.

More research is needed – including on women and then eventually in patients with psychological issues. Kisspeptin could one day help treat sexual disorders of the mind… in effect, mental Viagra.

Source: http://www.reuters.com/

Pain Relief Spot Identified In Brain

Scientists have identified for the first time the region in the brain responsible for the “placebo effect” in pain relief, when a fake treatment actually results in substantial reduction of pain, according to new research from Northwestern Medicine and the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC).

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The yellow and red sections of this brain image shows the unique brain region — the mid frontal gyrus — which Northwestern scientists discovered is responsible for placebo response in pain relief

Pinpointing the sweet spot of the pain killing placebo effect could result in the design of more personalized medicine for the 100 million Americans with chronic pain. The fMRI technology developed for the study has the potential to usher in an era of individualized pain therapy by enabling targeted pain medication based on how an individual’s brain responds to a drug.

Given the enormous societal toll of chronic pain, being able to predict placebo responders in a chronic pain population could both help the design of personalized medicine and enhance the success of clinical trials,” said Marwan Baliki, research scientist at RIC and an assistant professor of physical medicine and rehabilitation at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
The finding also will lead to more precise and accurate clinical trials for pain medications by eliminating individuals with high placebo response before trials.

The study was published Oct. 27, 2016, in PLOS Biology.

Source: https://news.northwestern.edu/

Nanoparticles From Car Pollution May Trigger Alzheimer’s

Tiny magnetic particles produced by car engines and brakes can travel into the human brain and may trigger Alzheimer’s disease, scientists have warned. Researchers at Lancaster, Oxford and Manchester Universities discovered microscopic  spheres of the mineral magnetite in the brains of 37 people in Manchester and Mexico who had suffered neurodegenerative disease. The mineral magnetite is known to be toxic and is linked to the production of free radicals which are associated with Alzheimer’s Disease.

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Although magnetite has previously been found in the brains of people who had died of Alzheimer’s disease, it was thought it occurred naturally. However the tiny balls spotted by the scientists had a fused surface suggesting they had been formed during extreme heat, such as in a car engineMagnetite – a form of iron oxide – is known to be produced in car engines – particularly diesel engines which can emit up to 22 times more particulates than petrol engines – as well as when brakes are used, both by cars and trains. It can also be produced by open fires and poorly fitted stoves. Researchers said the findings opened up a ‘whole new avenue‘ into the causes of Alzheimer’s disease, while charities said it offered ‘convincing evidence‘ that the toxic particles could get into the brain. “The particles we found are strikingly similar to magnetite nanospheres that are abundant in the airborne pollution found in urban settings, especially next to busy roads and which are firmed by combustion or frictional heating from vehicle engines or brakes.”

Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/

Implanted Neural Nanocomputers To Boost Failing Human Brains

As neural implants become more and more advanced, researchers think humans may be able to overcome diseases and defects like strokes and dementia with the help of nanocomputers in our brains.

With the forecasted inevitable rise of the machines — be they robots or artificial intelligences — humans are beginning to realize that they should work to maintain superiority. There are a few ideas about how we should do it, but perhaps the most promising option is to go full cyborg. (What could possibly go wrong?) On Monday, a company called Kernel, announced that it would be leading the charge.

Active_brain

The idea is something straight out of dorm room pot-smoking sessions. What if, the exhaling sophomore muses, we put computers inside our brains? Unfortunately for prospective stoner-scientists, the actual creation of such a device — a functioning, cognitive-enhancing neural implant — has long evaded bioengineers and neuroscientists alike.

Kernel thinks it’s past time to make real progress. Theodore Berger runs the Univerity of Southern California’s Center for Neural Engineering, and he caught the eye of Bryan Johnson, a self-made multimillionaire who’s obsessed with augmenting human intelligence. With Johnson’s entrepreneurial money and Berger’s scientific brain, the two launched Kernel.
For now, Berger and Johnson are focusing on achievable goals with immediate impacts. They are creating an analogous human neural implant that can mitigate cognitive decline in those who suffer from Alzheimer’s and the aftereffects of strokes, concussions, and other brain injuries or neurological diseases. If Kernel is able to replicate even the 10 percent cognitive improvement that Berger demonstrated in monkeys, those who suffer from these cognitive disorders will be that much more capable of forming memories and living out enjoyable lives.

Source: https://www.inverse.com/

Nanodrugs Help to cure 50 Rare Genetic Disorders

Researchers at Oregon State University and other institutions have discovered a type of drug delivery system that may offer new hope for patients with a rare, ultimately fatal genetic disorder – and make what might become a terrible choice a little easier.No treatment currently exists for this disease, known as Niemann Pick Type C1 disease, or NPC1, that affects about one in every 120,000 children globally, and results in abnormal cholesterol accumulation, progressive neurodegeneration and eventual death. However, a compound that shows promise is now undergoing clinical trials, but it has major drawbacks – the high doses necessary also cause significant hearing loss and lung damage, as well as requiring direct brain injection.

New findings, published today in Scientific Reports (“PEG-lipid micelles enable cholesterol efflux in Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease-based lysosomal storage disorder”), outline the potential for a nanotechnology-based delivery system to carry the new drug into cells far more effectively, improve its efficacy by about five times, and allow use of much lower doses that may still help treat this condition without causing such severe hearing loss.The same system, they say, may ultimately show similar benefits for 50 or more other genetic disorders, especially those that require “brain targeting” of treatments.

X-linked_recessive._inheritance

Right now there’s nothing that can be done for patients with this disease, and the median survival time is 20 years,” said Gaurav Sahay, an assistant professor in the Oregon State University/Oregon Health & Science University College of Pharmacy, and corresponding author on the new study. “The new cholesterol-scavenging drug proposed to treat this disorder, called cyclodextrin , may for the first time offer a real treatment. But it can cause significant hearing loss and requires multiple injections directly into the brain, which can be very traumatic. I’m very excited about the potential of our new drug delivery system to address these problems.”

Source: http://oregonstate.edu/

Eye Test detects Parkinson’s Before Symptoms develop

A newly developed eye test offers the hope of far earlier diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, a devastating condition usually discovered too late in patients for effective treatment.
This new eye test could detect Parkinson’s disease before symptoms develop. Developed at the University College London (UCL), Institute of Ophthalmology it looks for changes in patients’ retinas before brain alteration occurs. Researchers induced Parkinson’s in rats by injecting them with a chemical called rotenone. Having observed retinal changes, they treated the rodents with a new version ofRosiglitaz anti-diabetic drug Rosiglitazone.

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The preliminary results were that we were able to see evidence of Parkinson’s in the retina well in advance compared to the Parkinsonian events in the brain. Furthermore, by injecting the Rosiglitazone in these rats we were able to see a rescue effect of Rosiglitazone in this model, first in the eye and then in the brain“, says Dr. Eduardo Normando, UCL constant opthalmologist. Human clinical trials will begin soon. Earlier diagnosis could have a major impact on future patient outcomes

If you’ve seen the effects in the retina well before you see those effects in the brain then actually you could shorten the length of clinical trials and you could use this as a very good marker of treatment success. But in the long run what we think is that it could be a way of trying to see if patients are ever going to get Parkinson’s disease“, adds UCL Professor of glaucoma and retinal neurodegeneration, Francesca Cordeiro.

The degenerative condition affects 1 in 500 people, causing muscle stiffness, slowness of movement, tremors and a reduced quality of life. Symptoms typically become apparent once more than 70 percent of the brain’s dopamine-producing cells have been destroyed.

Source: http://www.reuters.com/