DNA Origami, The New Revolution To Come For Nanotechnology

For the past few decades, some scientists have known the shape of things to come in nanotechnology is tied to the molecule of life, DNA. This burgeoning field is called “DNA origami.” The moniker is borrowed from the art of conjuring up birds, flowers and other shapes by imaginatively folding a single sheet of paper. Similarly, DNA origami scientists are dreaming up a variety of shapes — at a scale one thousand times smaller than a human hair — that they hope will one day revolutionize computing, electronics and medicine. Now, a team of Arizona State University and Harvard scientists has invented a major new advance in DNA nanotechnology. Dubbed “single-stranded origami” (ssOrigami), their new strategy uses one long noodle-like strand of DNA, or its chemical cousin RNA, that can self-fold — without even a single knot — into the largest, most complex structures to date. And the strands forming these structures can be made inside living cells or using enzymes in a test tube, allowing scientists the potential to plug-and-play with new designs and functions for nanomedicine: picture tiny nanobots playing doctor and delivering drugs within cells at the site of injury.

A DNA origami with an emoji-like smiley face

I think this is an exciting breakthrough, and a great opportunity for synthetic biology as well,” said Hao Yan, a co-inventor of the technology, director of the ASU Biodesign Institute’s Center for Molecular Design and Biomimetics, and the Milton Glick Professor in the School of Molecular Sciences.

We are always inspired by nature’s designs to make information-carrying molecules that can self-fold into the nanoscale shapes we want to make,” he said.

As proof of concept, they’ve pushed the envelope to make 18 shapes, including emoji-like smiley faces, hearts and triangles, that significantly expand the design studio space and material scalability for so-called, “bottom-upnanotechnology.

Source: https://asunow.asu.edu/

How To Construct Innovative Nanoforms From DNA Origami

DNA, the molecular foundation of life, has new tricks up its sleeve. The four bases from which it is composed snap together like jigsaw pieces and can be artificially manipulated to construct endlessly varied forms in two and three dimensions. The technique, known as DNA origami, promises to bring futuristic microelectronics and biomedical innovations to market. Hao Yan, a researcher at Arizona State University’s Biodesign Institute (ASU), has worked for many years to refine the technique. His aim is to compose new sets of design rules, vastly expanding the range of nanoscale architectures generated by the method. In new research, a variety of innovative nanoforms are described, each displaying unprecedented design control. Yan directs the  Biodesign’s Center for Molecular Design and Biomimetics. In the current study, complex nano-forms displaying arbitrary wireframe architectures have been created, using a new set of design rules.

DNA ORIGAMI


The images show the scaffold-folding paths for
A) star shape
B) 2-D Penrose tiling
C) 8-fold quasicrystalline 2-D pattern
D) waving grid.
E) circle array.
F) fishnet pattern
G) flower and bird design
The completed nanostructures are seen in the accompanying atomic force microscopy images.

 

Earlier design methods used strategies including parallel arrangement of DNA helices to approximate arbitrary shapes, but precise fine-tuning of DNA wireframe architectures that connect vertices in 3D space has required a new approach,” Yan says. Yan has long been fascinated with Nature’s seemingly boundless capacity for design innovation. The new study describes wireframe structures of high complexity and programmability, fabricated through the precise control of branching and curvature, using novel organizational principles for the designs. (Wireframes are skeletal three-dimensional models represented purely through lines and vertices.) The resulting nanoforms include symmetrical lattice arrays, quasicrystalline structures, curvilinear arrays, and a simple wire art sketch in the 100-nm scale, as well as 3D objects including a snub cube with 60 edges and 24 vertices and a reconfigurable Archimedean solid that can be controlled to make the unfolding and refolding transitions between 3D and 2D.

The research appears in the advanced online edition of the journal Nature Nanotechnology.

Source: https://biodesign.asu.edu/