One-Two Knockout Punch To Eradicate Super Bugs

Light-activated nanoparticles, also known as quantum dots, can provide a crucial boost in effectiveness for antibiotic treatments used to combat drug-resistant superbugs such as E. coli and Salmonella, new CU Boulder research shows. Multi-drug resistant pathogens, which evolve their defenses faster than new antibiotic treatments can be developed to treat them, cost the United States an estimated $20 billion in direct healthcare costs and an additional $35 billion in lost productivity in 2013. Rather than attacking the infecting bacteria conventionally, the dots release superoxide, a chemical species that interferes with the bacteria’s metabolic and cellular processes, triggering a fight response that makes it more susceptible to the original antibiotic.

We’ve developed a one-two knockout punch,” said Prashant Nagpal, an assistant professor in CU Boulder’s Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (CHBE) and the co-lead author of the study. “The bacteria’s natural fight reaction [to the dots] actually leaves it more vulnerable.”

We are thinking more like the bug,” explains Anushree Chatterjee, an assistant professor in CHBE and the co-lead author of the study. “This is a novel strategy that plays against the infection’s normal strength and catalyzes the antibiotic instead.” The dots reduced the effective antibiotic resistance of the clinical isolate infections by a factor of 1,000 without producing adverse side effects.

The findings have been published today in the journal Science Advances.

Source: http://www.colorado.edu/

How To Destroy SuperBugs

A new discovery could control the spread of deadly antibiotic-resistant superbugs which experts fear are on course to kill 10 million people every year by 2050 – more than will die from cancer. A team of scientists, led by Professor Suresh C. Pillai from IT Sligo (Ireland), have made the significant breakthrough which will allow everyday items – from smartphones to door handles — to be protected against deadly bacteria, including MRSA and E. coli. News of the discovery comes just days after UK Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne warned that superbugs could become deadlier than cancer and are on course to kill 10 million people globally by 2050.

superbug bacteria

Speaking at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in Washington, Mr Osborne warned that the problem would slash global GDP by around €100 trillion if it was not tackled. Using nanotechnology, the discovery is an effective and practical antimicrobial solution — an agent that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth — that can be used to protect a range of everyday items. Items include anything made from glass, metallics and ceramics including computer or tablet screens, smartphones, ATMs, door handles, TVs, handrails, lifts, urinals, toilet seats, fridges, microwaves and ceramic floor or wall tiles. It will be of particular use in hospitals and medical facilities which are losing the battle against the spread of killer superbugs. Other common uses would include in swimming pools and public buildings, on glass in public buses and trains, sneeze guards protecting food in delis and restaurants as well as in clean rooms in the medical sector.

The discovery is the culmination of almost 12 years of research by a team of scientists, led by Prof. Suresh C. Pillai initially at CREST (Centre for Research in Engineering Surface Technology) in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) and then at IT Sligo’s Nanotechnology Research Group (PEM Centre).

It’s absolutely wonderful to finally be at this stage. This breakthrough will change the whole fight against superbugs. It can effectvely control the spread of bacteria,” said Prof. Pillai. He continued: “Every single person has a sea of bacteria on their hands. The mobile phone is the most contaminated personal item that we can have. Bacteria grows on the phone and can live there for up to five months. As it is contaminated with proteins from saliva and from the hand, It’s fertile land for bacteria and has been shown to carry 30 times more bacteria than a toilet seat.”

The research started at Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT)’s CREST and involves scientists now based at IT Sligo, Dublin City University (DCU) and the University of Surrey. Major researchers included Dr Joanna Carroll and Dr Nigel S. Leyland.

The research was published today in the journal, Scientific Reports, published by the Nature publishing group.

Source: https://itsligo.ie/

Compact, Ultra Sensitive BioSensor Gives Infos From A Blood Drop

Imagine a hand-held environmental sensor that can instantly test water for lead, E. coli, and pesticides all at the same time, or a biosensor that can perform a complete blood workup from just a single drop. That’s the promise of nanoscale plasmonic interferometry, a technique that combines nanotechnology with plasmonics—the interaction between electrons in a metal and light.

Now researchers from Brown University’s School of Engineering have made an important fundamental advance that could make such devices more practical. The research team has developed a technique that eliminates the need for highly specialized external light sources that deliver coherent light, which the technique normally requires. The advance could enable more versatile and more compact devices.

  • FluorescencePlasmonicInterferometryPlasmonic interferometers that have light emitters within them could make for better, more compact biosensors.

It has always been assumed that coherent light was necessary for plasmonic interferometry,” said Domenico Pacifici, a professor of engineering who oversaw the work with his postdoctoral researcher Dongfang Li, and graduate student Jing Feng. “But we were able to disprove that assumption.”

The research is described in Nature Scientific Reports.

Source: https://news.brown.edu/

Nanoparticles Destroy Antibiotic-Resistant “Superbugs”

In the ever-escalating evolutionary battle with drug-resistant bacteria, humans may soon have a leg up thanks to adaptive, light-activated nanotherapy developed by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder). Antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as Salmonella, E. Coli and Staphylococcus infect some 2 million people and kill at least 23,000 people in the United States each year. Efforts to thwart these so-called “psuperbugs” have consistently fallen short due to the bacteria’s ability to rapidly adapt and develop immunity to common antibiotics such as penicillin.  New research from CU-Boulder, however, suggests that the solution to this big global problem might be to think small—very small.

In findings published today in the journal Nature Materials, researchers at the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and the BioFrontiers Institute describe new light-activated therapeutic nanoparticles known as “quantum dots.” The dots, which are about 20,000 times smaller than a human hair and resemble the tiny semiconductors used in consumer electronics, successfully killed 92 percent of drug-resistant bacterial cells in a lab-grown culture.

salmonella bacteria

By shrinking these semiconductors down to the nanoscale, we’re able to create highly specific interactions within the cellular environment that only target the infection,” said Prashant Nagpal, an assistant professor in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at CU-Boulder and a senior author of the study.

Source: http://www.colorado.edu/

Biodegradable Nanoparticles For Harmless Pesticides

In this lab at North Carolina State University the future of keeping crops free of harmful bacteria is taking shape – albeit a very small shape. Researcher Alexander Richter is designing a new type of nanoparticle with lignin, an organic polymer found in almost all plants and trees, at its core. Currently, silver based nanoparticles are used in a wide range of pesticides to treat crops, but while silver has strong anti-microbial properties, its use is controversial.

nanoparticle

Their post-application activity when released into the environment was actually seen as a potential concern by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This is because the particles may stay active after the application, they may translocate after the application, they may kill good bacteria in the environment, which is undesired” says Alexander Tichter.

Dr. Orlin Velev, Professor of  chemical and biomolecular engineering adds: “So the problem is how do you potentially remove that danger from engineered nanomaterials?” The answer was to use less silver and replace the metallic core with lignin, making the newly engineered particles biodegradable but still an effective weapon in tackling dangerous bacteria like e-coli.
Our idea, or our approach, was to see if we can, if this is the problem, we replace the metallic core, which doesn’t participate in microbial action, with a biodegradable core. And by doing so, we could actually make the nanoparticles keep their functionality but make them degradable while also reducing the amount of the silver core in the nanoparticle system“, explains Richter.  And that equates to safer fruits and vegetables that are treated with less with chemicals as they grow.
“We believe that this can lead to a new generation of agricultural treatment products, that they’re going to be more efficient, that they’re going to use less chemicals, and that they’re going to be more friendly toward the environment” says Dr. Yelev.
The team has started a company to take their research to the next level with the hopes of perfecting the technology, scaling it up, and preparing it for commercialization.

Source:  http://www.reuters.com/