Universal Vaccine Against Influenza A Viruses

Researchers have developed a universal vaccine to combat influenza A viruses that produces long-lasting immunity in mice and protects them against the limitations of seasonal flu vaccines, according to a study led by Georgia State UniversityInfluenza, a contagious respiratory illness that infects the nose, throat and lungs, is among the leading causes of death in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC estimates influenza has resulted in between 12,000 and 56,000 deaths annually in the U.S. since 2010. Seasonal flu vaccines must be updated each year to match the influenza viruses that are predicted to be most common during the upcoming flu season, but protection doesn’t always meet expectations or new viruses emerge and manufacturers incorrectly guess which viruses will end up spreading. In 2009, the H1N1 pandemic caused 200,000 deaths during the first 12 months, and low vaccine effectiveness was also observed during the 2014-15 and 2016-17 flu seasons. A universal flu vaccine that offers broad protection against various viruses is urgently needed and would eliminate the limitations of seasonal flu vaccines.

Seasonal flu vaccines provide protective immunity against influenza viruses by targeting the exterior head of the virus’s surface protein, which is hem
agglutinin
(HA). The influenza virus trains the body to produce antibodies against inactivated virus particles containing the head of this protein, ideally preventing the head from attaching to receptors and stopping infection. However, the head is highly variable and is different for each virus, creating a need for better vaccines. This study uses a new approach and instead targets the inside portion of the HA protein known as the stalk, which is more conservative and offers the opportunity for universal protection.

In this study, the researchers found vaccinating mice with double-layered protein nanoparticles that target the stalk of this protein produces long-lasting immunity and fully protects them against various influenza A viruses. The findings are published in the journal Nature Communications.

Source: http://news.gsu.edu/

Hand-Held Breath Monitor To Detect Flu

Perena Gouma, a professor in the Materials Science and Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Arlington, has devised a hand-held breath monitor that can detect the flu virus. The single-exhale sensing device is similar to the breathalyzers used by police officers when they suspect a driver of being under the influence of alcohol. A patient simply exhales into the device, which uses semiconductor sensors like those in a household carbon monoxide detector.  The difference is that these sensors are specific to the gas detected, yet still inexpensive, and can isolate biomarkers associated with the flu virus and indicate whether or not the patient has the flu. The device could eventually be available in drugstores so that people can be diagnosed earlier and take advantage of medicine used to treat the flu in its earliest stages. This device may help prevent flu epidemics from spreading, protecting both individuals as well as the public health.

Gouma and her team relied on existing medical literature to determine the quantities of known biomarkers present in a person’s breath when afflicted with a particular disease, then applied that knowledge to find a combination of sensors for those biomarkers that is accurate for detecting the flu. For instance, people who suffer from asthma have increased nitric oxide concentration in their breath, and acetone is a known biomarker for diabetes and metabolic processes. When combined with a nitric oxide and an ammonia sensor, Gouma found that the breath monitor may detect the flu virus, possibly as well as tests done in a doctor’s office. Gouma’s sensors are at the heart of her breath analyzer device.

breath monitor prototype

I think that technology like this is going to revolutionize personalized diagnostics. This will allow people to be proactive and catch illnesses early, and the technology can easily be used to detect other diseases, such as Ebola virus disease, simply by changing the sensors,” said Gouma, who also is the lead scientist in the Institute for Predictive Performance Measurement at the UTA Research Institute.
Before we applied nanotechnology to create this device, the only way to detect biomarkers in a person’s breath was through very expensive, highly-technical equipment in a lab, operated by skilled personnel. Now, this technology could be used by ordinary people to quickly and accurately diagnose illness.”

The findings are described  in the journal Sensors Source.

https://www.uta.edu/

Nano Biosensor Detects Rapidly Flu Virus At Low Cost

The Department of Applied Physics (AP) and Interdisciplinary Division of Biomedical Engineering (BME) of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) have jointly developed a novel nano biosensor for rapid detection of flu and other viruses. PolyU‘s new invention utilizes an optical method called upconversion luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) process for ultrasensitive virus detection. It involves simple operational procedures, significantly reducing its testing duration from around 1-3 days to 2-3 hours, making it more than 10 times quicker than traditional clinical methods. Its cost is around HK$20 per sample, which is 80% lower than traditional testing methods. The technology can be widely used for the detection of different types of viruses, shedding new light on the development of low-cost, rapid and ultrasensitive detection of different viruses.

flu virusTraditional biological methods for flu virus detection include genetic analysis — reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used in immunology. However, RT-PCR is expensive and time-consuming while the sensitivity for ELISA is relatively low. Such limitations make them difficult for clinical use as a front-line and on-site diagnostic tool for virus detection, paving the way for PolyU‘s development of the new upconversion nanoparticle biosensor which utilizes luminescent technique in virus detection.

PolyU‘s researchers have developed a biosensor based on luminescent technique which operates like two matching pieces of magnet with attraction force. It involves the development of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) conjugated with a probe oligo whose DNA base pairs are complementary with that of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) flu virus oligo.

The related results have been recently published in ACS Nano and Small, specialized journals in nano material research.

Source: http://www.polyu.edu.hk/

How To Trap Flu Viruses Before They Infect Host Cells.

Newly emerging flu viruses could soon be countered by a treatment that Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, an independent, not-for-profit research and development corporation linked to MIT is developing that “traps” viruses before they can infect host cells.

Further into the future, patients suffering from any type of virus could be cured with DRACO, a drug also under development at Draper that is designed to rapidly recognize and eliminate cells infected by virtually any virus.

The research team has demonstrated in the laboratory that the nanotraps effectively countered multiple influenza strains able to infect humans and went on to show nanotraps protected mice infected with the flu. They have also developed additional particles geared toward other types of respiratory viruses.
Nanotraps, unlike most vaccines, are not strain specific and are designed to be effective against newly emerging strains of human-adapted influenza virus. Since nanotraps mimic a fundamental step in the viral life cycle – the binding of the virus to a host cell’s receptor – nanotraps may offer an opportunity to treat devastating infectious diseases without causing the development of treatment resistance.

influenza

In Figure 1, influenza viruses bind to specific carbohydrate structures on the surface of airway cells to gain entry.

In Figure 2, nanotrap particles effectively mimic the cell surface so that their carbohydrate structures “trap” viruses and prevent infection

Nanotraps, which could be taken at the first sign of infection or exposure, is likely the first of the products ready for use, and is expected to begin clinical trials in two to five years, according to Jim Comolli, who leads the research on the effort at Draper.

Source: http://www.draper.com/

Fast Flu/HIV-Detection Test

Researchers at Brown University has created a reliable and fast flu/HIV-detection test that can be carried in a first-aid kit. Let's go back 3 years ago when a virus mutated from pigs to human, then passed from human to human: the H1N1 "swine-flu" circulated  worldwide.18000  people died. Influenza  could be very dangerous.  One way to contain the next outbreak is by administering tests at the infection’s source, pinpointing and tracking the pathogen’s spread in real time. But such efforts have been stymied by devices that are costly, unwieldy and unreliable. 

We wanted to make something simple,” said Anubhav Tripathi, associate professor of engineering at Brown and the corresponding author on the paper, published in the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics. “It’s a low-cost device for active, on-site detection, whether it’s influenza, HIV, or TB (tuberculosis).”

Source: http://news.brown.edu/pressreleases/2012/06/smart