New Brain Death Pathway In Alzheimer’s Identified

Findings of team led by the Arizona State University (ASU) scientists offer hope for therapies targeting cell loss in the brain, an inevitable and devastating outcome of Alzheimer’s progression
Alzheimer’s disease tragically ravages the brains, memories and, ultimately, personalities of its victims. Now affecting 5 million Americans, Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth-leading cause of death in the U.S., and a cure for Alzheimer’s remains elusive, as the exact biological events that trigger it are still unknown.

In a new study, Arizona State University-Banner Health neuroscientist Salvatore Oddo and his colleagues from Phoenix’s Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) — as well as the University of California, Irvine, and Mount Sinai in New York — have identified a new way for brain cells to become fated to die during Alzheimer’s disease. The research team has found the first evidence that the activation of a biological pathway called necroptosis, which causes neuronal loss, is closely linked with Alzheimer’s severity, cognitive decline and extreme loss of tissue and brain weight that are all advanced hallmarks of the disease.

We anticipate that our findings will spur a new area of Alzheimer’s disease research focused on further detailing the role of necroptosis and developing new therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking it,” said Oddo, the lead author of this study, and scientist at the ASU-Banner Neurodegenerative Disease Research Center at the Biodesign Institute and associate professor in the School of Life Sciences.

Necroptosis, which causes cells to burst from the inside out and die, is triggered by a triad of proteins. It has been shown to play a central role in multiple sclerosis and Lou Gehrig’s disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS), and now for the first time, also in Alzheimer’s disease.

There is no doubt that the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease have fewer neurons,” explained Oddo. “The brain is much smaller and weighs less; it shrinks because neurons are dying. That has been known for 100 years, but until now, the mechanism wasn’t understood.
The findings appear in the advanced online edition of Nature Neuroscience.

Source: https://asunow.asu.edu/

How To Detect Infections At Extremely Low Cost

Detecting HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other deadly infectious diseases as early as possible helps to prevent their rapid spread and allows for more effective treatments. But current detection methods are cost-prohibitive in most areas of the world. Now a new nanotechnology method—employing common, everyday shrink wrap— may make highly sensitive, extremely low-cost diagnosis of infectious disease agents possible. The research team conducted by co-author Michelle Khine, a biomedical engineering professor at the University of California, Irvine (UC Irvine) found that the shrink wrap’s wrinkles significantly enhanced the intensity of the signals emitted by the biomarkers. The enhanced emission, Khine says, is due to the excitation of localized surface plasmons—coherent oscillations of the free electrons in the metal. When researchers shined a light on their wrinkled creation, the electromagnetic field was amplified within the nanoscale gaps between the shrink wrap’s folds, Khine said. This produced “hotspots”—areas characterized by sudden bursts of intense fluorescence signals from the biomarkers.

Using commodity shrink wrap and bulk manufacturing processes, we can make low-cost nanostructures to enable fluorescence enhancements greater than a thousand-fold, allowing for significantly lower limits of detection,” said Michelle Khine,. “If you have a solution with very few molecules that you are trying to detect—as in the case of infectious diseases — this platform will help amplify the signal so that a single molecule can be detected.The technique should work with measuring fluorescent markers in biological samples, but we have not yet tested bodily fluids,” said Khine, who cautions that the technique is far from ready for clinical use.

The findings have been described in a paper published in The Optical Society’s (OSA) journal Optical Materials Express.

Source: http://www.osa.org/