3D Printed Ears

A group of researchers in China has constructed ears for children suffering from microtia, a congenital condition where the external ear (pinna) is underdeveloped, with the help of 3D scanning and 3D printing.

The scientists, from Shanghai Jiao Tong University, the National Tissue Engineering Research Center of China, the Chinese Academy of Medical ScienceWei Fang Medical College and Dalian University, engineered a patient-specific ear-shaped cartilage in vitro using a 3D printed biodegradable scaffold and Microtia Chondrocyte (MCs) cartilage cells.

Microtia can have a negative impact on the hearing and wellbeing of children affected by it. Established procedures to treat microtia include rib cartilage reconstruction, plastic implants or prostheses.

Projects like Australia’s FutureHear are 3D printing customized ear molds, while Dr. Ken Stewart of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in Edinburgh has used 3D scanning and 3D printed models to prepare cartilage reconstructions accurately in the shape of an ear.

This approach, however, combined 3D printing with in vitro tissue engineering on children suffering from microtia only in one ear.

Source: http://www.ebiomedicine.com/
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https://3dprintingindustry.com/

Smart Nanoparticles Fight Multidrug-resistant Cancer

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the mechanism by which many cancers develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs, resulting in minimal cell death and the expansion of drug-resistant tumors. To address the problem of resistance, researchers have developed nanoparticles that simultaneously deliver chemotherapy drugs to tumors and inhibit the MDR proteins that pump the therapeutic drugs out of the cell. The process is known as chemosensitization, as blocking this resistance renders the tumor highly sensitive to the cancer-killing chemotherapy.

smart nanoparticlesMDR is a major factor in the failure of many chemotherapy drugs. The problem affects the treatment of a wide range of blood cancers and solid tumors, including breast, ovarian, lung, and colon cancers. Researchers at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), are engineering multi-component nanoparticles that significantly enhance the killing of cancer cells.
Success in this medically important endeavor has required a team with a wide range of expertise to engineer nanoparticles that survive the journey to the tumor site, enter the tumor, and successfully perform the multiple functions for chemosensitization”, says Xiaoyuan Chen, Ph.D., who is the Senior Investigator, and has lead the work. His collaborators include scientists and engineers in China at Southeast University, Shenzhen University, Guangxi Medical University, and Shanghai Jiao Tong University, in addition to chemical engineers at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom.

The results of their experiments are reported in recent articles in Scientific Reports and Applied Materials & Interfaces.

Source: https://www.nibib.nih.gov/

Graphene Fights Cavities and Gum Disease

Dental diseases, which are caused by the overgrowth of certain bacteria in the mouth, are among the most common health problems in the world. Now scientists have discovered that a material called graphene oxide is effective at eliminating these bacteria, some of which have developed antibiotic resistance. They report the findings in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.
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Zisheng Tang and colleagues at Shanghai Jiao Tong University point out that dentists often prescribe traditional antibiotics to get rid of bacteria that cause tooth decay or gum disease. But with the rise in antibiotic resistance, new approaches are needed to address these problems, which can lead to tooth loss. Previous studies have demonstrated that graphene oxide — carbon nanosheets studded with oxygen groups — is a promising material in biomedical applications. It can inhibit the growth of some bacterial strains with minimal harm to mammalian cells. Tang’s team wanted to see if the nanosheets would also stop the specific bacteria that cause dental diseases.

In the lab, the researchers tested the material against three different species of bacteria that are linked to tooth decay and gum disease. By destroying the bacterial cell walls and membranes, graphene oxide effectively slowed the growth of the pathogens. The researchers conclude that the nanosheets could have potential uses in dental care.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), oral health is essential to general health and quality of life.

Source: http://www.acs.org/