Clothes Embedded With Nanoparticles Heal The Skin

Tiny capsules embedded in the clothes we wear could soon be used to counteract the rise of sensitive skin conditions.

As people are getting older, they have more sensitive skin, so there is a need to develop new products for skin treatment,” says Dr Carla Silva, from the Centre for Nanotechnology and Smart Materials (CENTI), in Portugal

This increased sensitivity can lead to painful bacterial infections such as dermatitis, otherwise known as eczema. Current treatments use silver-based or synthetic antibacterial elements, but these can create environmentally harmful waste and may have negative side effects.

To combat these bacterial infections in an eco-friendly way the EU-funded SKHINCAPS project is combining concentrated plant oil with nanotechnology. Their solution puts these so-called essential oils into tiny capsules that are hundreds of times smaller than the width of a human hair. Each one is programmed to release its payload only in the presence of the bacteria that cause the skin infections. This means that each capsule is in direct contact with the affected skin as soon as an infection occurs, increasing the effectiveness of the treatment.

According to Dr Silva, who is also project coordinator of SKHINCAPS, the nano-capsules are attached to the clothing material using covalent bonding, the strongest chemical bond found in nature. This ensures the capsules survive the washing machine and that they are invisible to whoever is wearing them. This nanotechnology has a lifespan equal to that of the garment, though the active ingredients contained in the nano-capsules will run out earlier depending on the extent of the skin infection, and thereby on how much of the treatment is released when the clothing is worn.

The nano-capsules will prove invaluable for chronic eczema sufferers and those with high levels of stress, as well as the elderly and diabetics, who are particularly vulnerable to developing such infections.

Source: https://horizon-magazine.eu/

SuperPowerful Tiny Device Converts Light Into Electricity

In today’s increasingly powerful electronics, tiny materials are a must as manufacturers seek to increase performance without adding bulk. Smaller also is better for optoelectronic devices — like camera sensors or solar cells —which collect light and convert it to electrical energy. Think, for example, about reducing the size and weight of a series of solar panels, producing a higher-quality photo in low lighting conditions, or even transmitting data more quickly.

However, two major challenges have stood in the way: First, shrinking the size of conventionally used “amorphousthin-film materials also reduces their quality. And second, when ultrathin materials become too thin, they are almost transparent — and actually lose some ability to gather or absorb light.

Now, in a nanoscale photodetector that combines both a unique fabrication method and light-trapping structures, a team of engineers from the University at Buffalo (UB) and the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison) has overcome both of those obstacles. The researchers — electrical engineers Qiaoqiang Gan at UB, and Zhenqiang (Jack) Ma and Zongfu Yu at UW-Madison — described their device, a single-crystalline germanium nanomembrane photodetector on a nanocavity substrate, in the July 7, 2017, issue of the journal Science Advances.

This image shows the different layers of the nanoscale photodetector, including germanium (red) in between layers of gold or aluminum (yellow) and aluminum oxide (purple). The bottom layer is a silver substrate

We’ve created an exceptionally small and extraordinarily powerful device that converts light into energy,” says Gan, associate professor of electrical engineering in UB’s School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and one of the paper’s lead authors. “The potential applications are exciting because it could be used to produce everything from more efficient solar panels to more powerful optical fibers.”

The idea, basically, is you want to use a very thin material to realize the same function of devices in which you need to use a very thick material,” says Ma, the Lynn H. Matthias Professor and Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor in electrical and computer engineering at UW-Madison, also a lead author. Nanocavities are made up of an orderly series of tiny, interconnected molecules that essentially reflect, or circulate, light.

The new device is an advancement of Gan’s work developing nanocavities that increase the amount of light that thin semiconducting materials like germanium can absorb. It consists of nanocavities sandwiched between a top layer of ultrathin single-crystal germanium and a bottom, reflecting layer of silver.

Source: https://www.buffalo.edu/

Nanocoatings Reduce Dental Implant Bacterial Infection By 97%

According to the American Academy of Implant Dentistry (AAID), 15 million Americans have crown or bridge replacements and three million have dental implants – with this latter number rising by 500,000 a year. The AAID estimates that the value of the American and European market for dental implants will rise to $4.2 billion by 2022. Dental implants are a successful form of treatment for patients, yet according to a study published in 2005, five to ten per cent of all dental implants fail. The reasons for this failure are several-fold – mechanical problems, poor connection to the bones in which they are implanted, infection or rejection. When failure occurs the dental implant must be removed. The main cause for dental implant failure is peri-implantitis. This is the destructive inflammatory process affecting the soft and hard tissues surrounding dental implants. This occurs when pathogenic microbes in the mouth and oral cavity develop into biofilms, which protects them and encourages growth. Peri-implantitis is caused when the biofilms develop on dental implants.

A research team comprising scientists from the School of Biological and Marine Sciences, Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry and the School of Engineering at the University of Plymouth, have joined forces to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a new nanocoating for dental implants to reduce the risk of peri-implantitis.

dentistIn this cross-Faculty study we have identified the means to protect dental implants against the most common cause of their failure. The potential of our work for increased patient comfort and satisfaction, and reduced costs, is great and we look forward to translating our findings into clinical practice,”  commented Professor Christopher Tredwin, Head of Plymouth University Peninsula School of Dentistry.

In the study, the research team created a new approach using a combination of silver, titanium oxide and hydroxyapatite nanocoatings. The application of the combination to the surface of titanium alloy implants successfully inhibited bacterial growth and reduced the formation of bacterial biofilm on the surface of the implants by 97.5 per cent.

Not only did the combination result in the effective eradication of infection, it created a surface with anti-biofilm properties which supported successful integration into surrounding bone and accelerated bone healing.

The results of their work are published in the journal Nanotoxicology.

Source: https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/

Efficient, Fast, Large-scale 3-D Manufacturing

Washington State University (WSU) researchers have developed a unique, 3-D manufacturing method that for the first time rapidly creates and precisely controls a material’s architecture from the nanoscale to centimeters – with results that closely mimic the intricate architecture of natural materials like wood and bone.

3D manufacturing Hex-Scaffold-web-

This is a groundbreaking advance in the 3-D architecturing of materials at nano- to macroscales with applications in batteries, lightweight ultrastrong materials, catalytic converters, supercapacitors and biological scaffolds,” said Rahul Panat, associate professor in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, who led the research. “This technique can fill a lot of critical gaps for the realization of these technologies.”

The WSU research team used a 3-D printing method to create foglike microdroplets that contain nanoparticles of silver and to deposit them at specific locations. As the liquid in the fog evaporated, the nanoparticles remained, creating delicate structures. The tiny structures, which look similar to Tinkertoy constructions, are porous, have an extremely large surface area and are very strong.

The researchers would like to use such nanoscale and porous metal structures for a number of industrial applications; for instance, the team is developing finely detailed, porous anodes and cathodes for batteries rather than the solid structures that are now used. This advance could transform the industry by significantly increasing battery speed and capacity and allowing the use of new and higher energy materials.

They report on their work in the journal  Science Advances  and have filed for a patent.

Source: https://news.wsu.edu/

Nano-enhanced Textiles Clean Themselves Of Stains

Researchers at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, have developed a cheap and efficient new way to grow special —which can degrade organic matter when exposed to lightdirectly onto . The work paves the way towards nano-enhanced textiles that can spontaneously clean themselves of stains and grime simply by being put under a light bulb or worn out in the sun. Dr Rajesh Ramanathan said the process developed  by the team had a variety of applications for catalysis-based industries such as agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and natural products, and could be easily scaled up to industrial levels.

no more washing textileClose-up of the nanostructures grown on cotton textiles by RMIT University researchers. Image magnified 150,000 times

The advantage of textiles is they already have a 3D structure so they are great at absorbing light, which in turn speeds up the process of degrading organic matter,”said Dr Ramanathan. “There’s more work to do to before we can start throwing out our washing machines, but this advance lays a strong foundation for the future development of fully self-cleaning textile, he adds.”

The researchers from the Ian Potter NanoBioSensing Facility and NanoBiotechnology Research Lab at RMIT worked with copper and silver-based nanostructures, which are known for their ability to absorb visible light.

Source: http://phys.org/

How To Extract Easily Gold From The Waste

Research by scientists at the University of York has demonstrated an innovative way of using a gel to extract precious metals such as silver and gold from waste and convert them into conducting nanoparticles to form a hybrid nanomaterial potentially suitable for a range of high-tech applications.

Discarded electronic devices are an ever-increasing waste stream containing high-value precious metals such as silver and gold.  Making use of this resource was the inspiration for the research by a team from the Department of Chemistry at York. Professor David Smith and Babatunde Okesola, a PhD student supported by The Wild Fund, discovered that their self-assembling gels derived from sorbitol, a simple sugar, could selectively extract precious metals from complex mixtures of other metals typical of the electronics or mining industries.

 

gold2

On exposure to the gel, not only were the precious metals selectively extracted, but they were also then converted into conducting nanoparticles via an in situ chemical reduction process, caused by the nanofibres of the gel network.  These conducting nanoparticles become embedded in the gel giving it enhanced electrical conductance.

Babatunde Okesola said: “Importantly, gels have properties of both solids and liquids so these conducting gels are potentially ideal to bridge between the soft, wet world of biology and the hard, dry world of electronics.  Being able to ‘wire up’ this interface will be of increasing importance in future technologies.
Dr Smith added: “We hope to go on and test our gels using real-world electronic waste, and also explore the potential applications of the resulting materials at the interface between biology and electronics.

Source: https://www.york.ac.uk/

First Worker Sick From Nanoparticles Manipulation

A 26-year-old female chemist formulated polymers and coatings usually using silver ink particles. When she later began working with nickel nanoparticle powder weighed out and handled on a lab bench with no protective measures, she developed throat irritation, nasal congestion, “post nasal drip,” facial flushing, and new skin reactions to her earrings and belt buckle which were temporally related to working with the nanoparticles. Subsequently she was found to have a positive reaction to nickel on the T.R.U.E. patch test, and a normal range FEV1 that increased by 16% post bronchodilator. It was difficult returning her to work even in other parts of the building due to recurrence of symptoms.
nickel nanoparticle
This incident triggered the company to make plans for better control measures for working with nickel nanoparticles. In conclusion, a worker developed nickel sensitization when working with nanoparticle nickel powder in a setting without any special respiratory protection or control measures.
Nanotechnology has blossomed into a $20 billion business, with a huge presence in manufacturing. Now there’s new evidence suggesting that the use of nanoparticles on the production line might be causing serious health effects in workers.

The report has been published in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine by physicians and toxicologists Shane Journeay and Rose Goldman. Journeay, who is also chief executive officer and president of Nanotechnology Toxicology Consulting & Training, believes it holds long-term implications for the use of nanoparticles, both in manufacturing and consumer goods.

Source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/

Nano Toothpaste Is A Cavity Filter, Bacteria Killer

There are 3 main toothpaste ingredients that may be made of nano-sized particles.

Hydroxyapatite, cavity filler. Hydroxyapatite is a lattice of calcium found naturally in teeth and bones. It helps prevent tooth pain associated with sensitivity. Coating the teeth and slipping into tiny cracks, it breaks down in response to acid before your enamel does, protecting the teeth from decay and cavities+. Hydroxyapatite also provides a source of calcium and phosphate ions which, combined with fluoride, help to remineralise the tooth surface.

Silver, bacteria killer. Silver nanoparticles are proven to have antibacterial properties, reducing the risk of gum disease and bad breath caused by bacteria in the mouth. Its distribution in toothpaste remains largely limited to manufacturers based in Asia, though such products can be purchased online. Like titanium dioxide, it is widely used in a number of other products, including clothing and plasters.

Titanium dioxide, whitener. Titanium dioxide is an intensely white pigment. It has a high refractive index, which means it scatters light to create a very white product. Titanium dioxide is widely used in toothpaste, but often the particles used are not small enough to be defined as nanoparticles.

toothpaste
Since July 2013, EU cosmetics regulation has demanded that all nanoparticles are labelled on the ingredient list.

“Silica particles are found in many food stuffs and, in fact, nanosilica particles have been put into cosmetics and household products for more than 40 years People just aren’t aware of this, because back then no one talked about nanotechnology.” explains Dr Robert Hill, from Queen Mary University of London.
Source; http://www.theguardian.com/

Nanoparticules to cure your dental cavities

team of bioengineers at the University of Maryland, led by Professor Huakun Xu announced that they had successfully tested an alternative to conventional mercury cavity filling, comprised of silver nanoparticles, which not only kill unwanted microbes, but also regenerate tooth enamel. The entire materials science of nanomaterials is a still-growing field, because otherwise normal materials like silver often have fantastic physical and electrical properties when you shave them down to the nanometer scale, and quantum effects become immediately relevant. Basically, a chunk of silver acts nothing like a nanoparticle of silver – and this goes for any other nanomaterial.

The silver nanoparticles kill the bacteria by getting down to their level and attaching to their cell walls like a key with a perfect fit. This physical breach allows external matter to get inside, which disrupts the internal functions of the cell, eventually killing the bacterium. It's worth a mention that nanosilver can't do this to human cells!

Source: http://www.dental.umaryland.edu/dentaldepts/epod/
Biomaterials%20and%20Tissue%20Engineering/hxu/bio.html