Hard Material With Self-Healing Capability

Imagine a cellphone that can heal from cuts and scratches just like the human body can. For Chinese researcher Ming Yang and his team at the Harbin Institute of Technology, it’s not really a question of imagining anymore: They have developed a new kind of smart coating that manages to be both soft and hard, not unlike our own skin.

We designed a self-healing coating with a hardness that even approaches tooth enamel by mimicking the structure of epidermis,” Yang says. “This is the most desirable property combination in the current self-healing materials and coatings.”

As described in a paper published Wednesday in ACS Nano, this new material is far from the first smart coating, with previous research looking at both soft and hard coating options. Yang says there’s serious global need for better self-healing materials.

Nowadays people always talk about environment and energy,” he adds. “A self-healing material can help save a lot of money and energy using a smart, environmental friendly way. But the current self-healing materials and coatings are typically soft and wear out quickly. This can bring potential problems about the management of plastic waste.

This new material could solve those waste problems, as it comes closer than any predecessor to combining the flexibility of a soft coating and the resilience of a hard coating, without the short lifespan of the former or the brittleness of the latter. This could be the best of both worlds.

The trick is to use artificial materials in nature’s way,” explains Yang. “The multilayer structure is the key. By placing a hard layer containing graphene oxide on top of a soft layer, we create a smart hybridization you can get the most out of.”

The graphene oxide material used in the coating’s top layer is harder than skin cells, offering a toughness closer to that of teeth enamel. The amazing thing, according to Yang, is that the coating’s hard and soft layers are able to work together to create healing properties that neither could accomplish on its own.

Source: https://pubs.acs.org/

How To Generate Any Cell Within The Patient’s Own Body

Researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and Ohio State’s College of Engineering have developed a new technology, Tissue Nanotransfection (TNT), that can generate any cell type of interest for treatment within the patient’s own body. This technology may be used to repair injured tissue or restore function of aging tissue, including organs, blood vessels and nerve cells.

By using our novel nanochip technology (nanocomputer), injured or compromised organs can be replaced. We have shown that skin is a fertile land where we can grow the elements of any organ that is declining,” said Dr. Chandan Sen, director of Ohio State’s Center for Regenerative Medicine & Cell Based Therapies, who co-led the study with L. James Lee, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering with Ohio State’s College of Engineering in collaboration with Ohio State’s Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center.

Researchers studied mice and pigs in these experiments. In the study, researchers were able to reprogram skin cells to become vascular cells in badly injured legs that lacked blood flow. Within one week, active blood vessels appeared in the injured leg, and by the second week, the leg was saved. In lab tests, this technology was also shown to reprogram skin cells in the live body into nerve cells that were injected into brain-injured mice to help them recover from stroke.

This is difficult to imagine, but it is achievable, successfully working about 98 percent of the time. With this technology, we can convert skin cells into elements of any organ with just one touch. This process only takes less than a second and is non-invasive, and then you’re off. The chip does not stay with you, and the reprogramming of the cell starts. Our technology keeps the cells in the body under immune surveillance, so immune suppression is not necessary,” said Sen, who also is executive director of Ohio State’s Comprehensive Wound Center.

Results of the regenerative medicine study have been published in the journal  Nature Nanotechnology.

Source: https://news.osu.edu/

Very Efficient Dust-Mite Allergy Vaccine

If you’re allergic to dust mites (and chances are you are), help may be on the way.
Researchers at the University of Iowa (UI) have developed a vaccine that can combat dust-mite allergies by naturally switching the body’s immune response. In animal tests, the nano-sized vaccine package lowered lung inflammation by 83 percent despite repeated exposure to the allergens, according to the paper, published in the AAPS (American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists) Journal. One big reason why it works, the researchers contend, is because the vaccine package contains a booster that alters the body’s inflammatory response to dust-mite allergens.
What is new about this is we have developed a vaccine against dust-mite allergens that hasn’t been used before,” says Aliasger Salem, professor in pharmaceutical sciences at the UI and a corresponding author on the paper.
Dust mites are ubiquitous, microscopic buggers who burrow in mattresses, sofas, and other homey spots. They are found in 84 percent of households in the United States, according to a published, national survey. Preying on skin cells on the body, the mites trigger allergies and breathing difficulties among 45 percent of those who suffer from asthma, according to some studies. Prolonged exposure can cause lung damage.
Usual treatment is limited to getting temporary relief from inhalers or undergoing regular exposure to build up tolerance, which is long term and holds no guarantee of success.
Our research explores a novel approach to treating mite allergy in which specially-encapsulated miniscule particles are administered with sequences of bacterial DNA that direct the immune system to suppress allergic immune responses,” says Peter Thorne, public health professor at the UI and a contributing author on the paper. “This work suggests a way forward to alleviate mite-induced asthma in allergy sufferers.”

Source: http://now.uiowa.edu/