How To Generate Any Cell Within The Patient’s Own Body

Researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and Ohio State’s College of Engineering have developed a new technology, Tissue Nanotransfection (TNT), that can generate any cell type of interest for treatment within the patient’s own body. This technology may be used to repair injured tissue or restore function of aging tissue, including organs, blood vessels and nerve cells.

By using our novel nanochip technology (nanocomputer), injured or compromised organs can be replaced. We have shown that skin is a fertile land where we can grow the elements of any organ that is declining,” said Dr. Chandan Sen, director of Ohio State’s Center for Regenerative Medicine & Cell Based Therapies, who co-led the study with L. James Lee, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering with Ohio State’s College of Engineering in collaboration with Ohio State’s Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center.

Researchers studied mice and pigs in these experiments. In the study, researchers were able to reprogram skin cells to become vascular cells in badly injured legs that lacked blood flow. Within one week, active blood vessels appeared in the injured leg, and by the second week, the leg was saved. In lab tests, this technology was also shown to reprogram skin cells in the live body into nerve cells that were injected into brain-injured mice to help them recover from stroke.

This is difficult to imagine, but it is achievable, successfully working about 98 percent of the time. With this technology, we can convert skin cells into elements of any organ with just one touch. This process only takes less than a second and is non-invasive, and then you’re off. The chip does not stay with you, and the reprogramming of the cell starts. Our technology keeps the cells in the body under immune surveillance, so immune suppression is not necessary,” said Sen, who also is executive director of Ohio State’s Comprehensive Wound Center.

Results of the regenerative medicine study have been published in the journal  Nature Nanotechnology.

Source: https://news.osu.edu/

How To Prevent Heart Attacks, Strokes

As men and women grow older, their chances for coronary heart disease also increase. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, which can lead to serious problems, including heart attacks, strokes or even death. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri (MU)  have found that Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), a protein that is naturally found in high levels among adolescents, can help prevent arteries from clogging. They say that increasing atherosclerosis patients’ levels of the protein could reduce the amount of plaque buildup in their arteries, lowering their risk of heart disease.

heart

The body already works to remove plaque from arteries through certain types of white blood cells called macrophages,” said Yusuke Higashi, PhD, assistant research professor in the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine at the MU School of Medicine and lead author of the study. “However, as we age, macrophages are not able to remove plaque from the arteries as easily. Our findings suggest that increasing IGF-1 in macrophages could be the basis for new approaches to reduce clogged arteries and promote plaque stability in aging populations.”

In a previous study, Higashi and Patrice Delafontaine, MD, the Hugh E. and Sarah D. Stephenson Dean of the MU School of Medicine, examined the arteries of mice fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks. IGF-1 was administered to one group of mice. Researchers found that the arteries of mice with higher levels of IGF-1 had significantly less plaque than mice that did not receive the protein. Since the macrophage is a key player in the development of atherosclerosis, the researchers decided to investigate potential anti-atherosclerosis effects of IGF-1 in macrophages. The team also found that the lack of IGF-1 action in macrophages changed the composition of the plaque, weakening its strength and making it more likely to rupture and cause a heart attack.

Source: http://medicine.missouri.edu/

Implanted Neural Nanocomputers To Boost Failing Human Brains

As neural implants become more and more advanced, researchers think humans may be able to overcome diseases and defects like strokes and dementia with the help of nanocomputers in our brains.

With the forecasted inevitable rise of the machines — be they robots or artificial intelligences — humans are beginning to realize that they should work to maintain superiority. There are a few ideas about how we should do it, but perhaps the most promising option is to go full cyborg. (What could possibly go wrong?) On Monday, a company called Kernel, announced that it would be leading the charge.

Active_brain

The idea is something straight out of dorm room pot-smoking sessions. What if, the exhaling sophomore muses, we put computers inside our brains? Unfortunately for prospective stoner-scientists, the actual creation of such a device — a functioning, cognitive-enhancing neural implant — has long evaded bioengineers and neuroscientists alike.

Kernel thinks it’s past time to make real progress. Theodore Berger runs the Univerity of Southern California’s Center for Neural Engineering, and he caught the eye of Bryan Johnson, a self-made multimillionaire who’s obsessed with augmenting human intelligence. With Johnson’s entrepreneurial money and Berger’s scientific brain, the two launched Kernel.
For now, Berger and Johnson are focusing on achievable goals with immediate impacts. They are creating an analogous human neural implant that can mitigate cognitive decline in those who suffer from Alzheimer’s and the aftereffects of strokes, concussions, and other brain injuries or neurological diseases. If Kernel is able to replicate even the 10 percent cognitive improvement that Berger demonstrated in monkeys, those who suffer from these cognitive disorders will be that much more capable of forming memories and living out enjoyable lives.

Source: https://www.inverse.com/

How To Detect Blood Clots With Simple in-Home Test

For millions of Americans at risk for blood clots, strokes and hypertension, routine lab tests to monitor blood-thinning medications can be frequent, costly and painful.
But researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) are developing materials and technology for a simple in-home screening that could be a game changer for patients with several life-threatening conditions.
Patients with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, kidney disease and others who are at risk for blood clotting are especially vulnerable when blood-thinning medication levels get too weak or too strong. This imbalance can quickly lead to ischemic (clotting) or hemorrhagic (bleeding) strokes if not detected in time.

blood clotsWe have developed a blood screening device for patients on medications like Coumadin, warfarin or other blood thinners who need to monitor their blood-clotting levels on a regular basis,” says Andrew Steckl, UC professor of electrical engineering in the College of Engineering and Applied Science.  Patients can soon monitor their blood coagulation characteristics from home quickly and painlessly before making needless trips to the lab or hospital.

Source: http://www.uc.edu/

How To Combat Arteriosclerosis

A particularly high number of people suffer from arteriosclerosis—with fatal consequences: Deposits in the arteries lead to strokes and heart attacks. A team of researchers under the leadership of the University of Bonn has now developed a method for guiding replacement cells to diseased vascular segments using nanoparticles. The scientists demonstrated in mice that the fresh cells actually exert their curative effect in these segments.

Blood_Heart_CirculationIn arterial calcification (arteriosclerosis), pathological deposits form in the arteries and this leads to vascular stenosis. Strokes and heart attacks are a frequent outcome due to the resultant insufficient blood flow. Endothelial which line the blood vessels play an important role here.  Damage to the is generally the insidious onset of arteriosclerosis.

The scientists introduced tiny nanoparticles with an iron core. “The iron changes the properties of the endothelial cells: They become magnetic,” explains Dr. Sarah Rieck from the Institute of Physiology I of the University of Bonn. The nanoparticles ensure that the endothelial cells equipped with the ‘turbogene can be delivered to the desired site in the blood vessel using a magnet where they exert their curative effect.

The researchers tested this combination method in mice whose carotid artery endothelial cells were injured. They injected the replacement cells into the artery and were able to position them at the correct site using the magnet. “After half an hour, the endothelial cells adhered so securely to the vascular wall that they could no longer be flushed away by the bloodstream,” says Jun.-Prof. Wenzel. The scientists then removed the magnets and tested whether the fresh cells had fully regained their function. As desired, the new endothelial cells produced nitric oxide and thus expanded the vessel, as is usual in the case of healthy arteries. “The mouse woke up from the anesthesia and ate and drank normally,” reported the physiologist.

The results are now being published in the journal ACS Nano.

Source: http://phys.org/

Arrhythmia: How To Prevent Heart Attack

A new nanoparticle developed by University of Michigan researchers could be the key to a targeted therapy for cardiac arrhythmia, a condition that causes the heart to beat erratically and can lead to heart attack and stroke. The disease affects more than 4 million Americans and causes more than 750,000 hospitalizations and 130,000 deaths per year in the U.S. alone.

The new treatment uses nanotechnology to precisely target and destroy the cells within the heart that cause cardiac arrhythmia. In studies conducted on rodents and sheep, the U-M team found that the treatment successfully kills the cells that cause cardiac arrhythmia while leaving surrounding cells unharmed. Cardiac arrhythmia is caused by malfunctions in a certain type of heart muscle cell, which normally helps regulate the heartbeat. Today, the disease is usually treated with drugs, which can have serious side effects. It can also be treated with a procedure called cardiac ablation that burns away the malfunctioning cells using a high-powered laser that’s threaded into the heart on a catheter. The laser also damages surrounding cells, which can cause artery damage and other serious problems.

The U-M team, led by Dr. Jérôme Kalifa, a cardiologist and assistant professor of internal medicine, and Raoul Kopelman, Professor of Chemistry, set out to target and destroy the cells with a far more precise technique that uses low-level red light illumination instead of a high-power laser. Widely used today to treat cancer, the technique requires doctors to mark unwanted cells with a chemical that makes them sensitive to low-level red light. The red light then destroys the marked cells while leaving surrounding tissue unharmed.

cardiologyMicroscopy photos show a cardiac myocyte cell (top) and an attached fibroblast cell (bottom) in a rat heart, after the injection of the newly developed nanoparticle. In the second frame, red light has been applied. The red coloring indicates that the myocyte, which causes cardiac arrhythmia, has been killed, while the fibroblast remains unharmed.

The great thing about this treatment is that it’s precise down to the level of individual cells,” Kopelman said. “Drugs spread all over the body and high-power lasers char the tissue in the heart. This treatment is much easier and much safer.”

The findings are detailed in a new study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

Source: http://ns.umich.edu/

Nanotechnology Extends Our Lives

It has been speculated since long by futurists that nanotechnology will revolutionize virtually every field of our lives, medicine making no exception. Nanotechnology focuses on the engineering of materials and devices at a nanoscale, by using building blocks of atoms and molecules. Medical nanotechnology may be able to extend our lives in two ways. It can repair our bodies at the cellular level, reverse aging and providing a certain version of the fountain of youth, and it can help the medical community to eradicate life-threatening diseases such as stroke, heart attack, HIV or cancer.

By curing life-threatening disease, nanotech can extend the average lifespan far beyond the remarkable achievements of the last century. For instance, the nanotechnology applications in healthcare are likely to minimize the number of deaths from conditions such as heart disease and cancer over the next decade or so. There are already many research programs in place working on these techniques. Curing cancer could finally become reality, thanks to medical nanotech. Targeted chemotherapy methods based on nanotech use nanoparticle to deliver chemotherapy drugs.

gold nanoparticle structureA separate nanoparticle is used to guide the drug carrier directly to the cancer tumor. Gold nanorods can also be introduced in circulation through the bloodstream. Once they accumulate at the tumor site, they would concentrate the heat from an infrared light, heating up the tumor to a level where its cells die with minimal damage to the surrounding healthy cells.

This heat could also be used in order to increase the level of a stress related protein present on the tumor’s surface. Then a drug carrying liposome nanoparticles can be attached to amino acids that bind to this protein. This way, the accumulation of the liposome chemotherapy drug is speeded up by the increased level of protein at the tumor.

Magnetic nanoparticles attaching to cancer cells present in the bloodstream could also allow the removal of cancer cells before they establish new tumors.

Individual research programs like those mentioned above are in place at various private companies and universities. Similar research projects are in place for studying ways of fighting heart disease, another major killer in our time. For example, researchers at the University of Santa Barbara have designed a nanoparticle able to deliver drugs to the wall arteries plaqueExtending the average lifespan by repairing cells is another area of interest for medical nanotech. This is perhaps the most exciting application. Our bodies can be repaired at the cellular level by nanorobots. Such technologies are being under development already at various private companies and universities.

For instance, nanorobots might repair our DNA in our cells when it get damaged by toxins in our bodies or radiation. The Nanomedicine Center for Nucleoprotein Machines is studying protein-based biological machines (nano-robots) able to repair damage in our bodies and assist in DNA replication.

The Nanofactory Collorabation is an international group focused on developing the techniques for nanoscale precise manufacturing, The ability to work at this scale will allow manufacturing of unique materials and devices that will feature improved and novel properties.

Medical nanotech is also behind the new non-drug therapy called hyperthermia, which comes with the advantage of being non-toxic and with no harmful side effects. A 3D printer at nano-scale is able to manufacture new cancer drugs just by drag-and-dropping DNA. And the list of examples may continue for long. All these revolutionary medical advances are possible thanks to the emerging field of nanotechnology. They will change our lives forever.

Source: http://www.sciencetimes.com/

Revolutionary Treatment Against Blood Clots

Australian researchers funded by the National Heart Foundation are a step closer to a safer and more effective way to treat heart attack and stroke via nanotechnology. The research is jointly lead by Professor Christoph Hagemeyer, Head of the Vascular Biotechnology Laboratory at Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute (Australia) and Professor Frank Caruso, from the University of Melbourne. Professor Hagemeyer said this latest step offers a revolutionary difference between the current treatments for blood clots and what might be possible in the future. This life saving treatment could be administered by paramedics in emergency situations without the need for specialised equipment as is currently the case.

nanoparticles against heart attack

We’ve created a nanocapsule that contains a clot-busting drug. The drug-loaded nanocapsule is coated with an antibody that specifically targets activated platelets, the cells that form blood clots,” Professor Hagemeyer said. “Once located at the site of the blood clot, thrombin (a molecule at the centre of the clotting process) breaks open the outer layer of the nanocapsule, releasing the clot-busting drug. We are effectively hijacking the blood clotting system to initiate the removal of the blockage in the blood vessel,” he added.

Professor Frank Caruso from the Melbourne School of Engineering said the targeted drug with its novel delivery method can potentially offer a safer alternative with fewer side effects for people suffering a heart attack or stroke. “Up to 55,000 Australians experience a heart attack or suffer a stroke every year. About half of the people who need a clot-busting drug can’t use the current treatments because the risk of serious bleeding is too high,” he said.

The findings has been published in the journal Advanced Materials.

Source: http://newsroom.melbourne.edu/

How To Fight Thrombotic Disease

Future Science Group (FSG) today announced the publication of a new article in Future Science OA, covering the use of nanocarriers and microbubbles in drug delivery for thrombotic disease.

Ischemic heart disease and stroke caused by thrombus formation are responsible for more than 17 million deaths per year worldwide. Molecules with thrombolytic capacities have been developed and some of them are in clinical practice. However, some patients treated with these molecules develop lethal intracranial hemorrhages. Furthermore, these molecules are rapidly degraded in the blood stream, and therefore large amounts of drugs are needed to be efficacious.

Research has focused on protecting thrombolytic molecules and enhancing their accumulation in clots. In this context, nanoparticles are interesting tools as the drugs can be loaded onto them and are thus protected from degradation in the body. Moreover, thrombus-targeting peptides have been used to concentrate the nanoparticles loaded with thrombolytic molecules into the thrombus.
nanoparticle against brain cancerWith millions of deaths per year resulting from thrombosis, it is important to improve drug delivery and the subsequent outcomes,” commented Francesca Lake, Managing Editor. “This review provides an excellent overview of where we stand thus far with utilizing nanoscale technology to solve this issue.”

Source:  http://www.future-science-group.com/

Therapy Stops Atherosclerosis

In what may be a major leap forward in the quest for new treatments of the most common form of cardiovascular disease, scientists at Johns Hopkins report they have found a way to halt and reverse the progression of atherosclerosis in rodents by loading microscopic nanoparticles with a chemical that restores the animals’ ability to properly handle cholesterol.


cholesterol2Cholesterol
is a fatty substance that clogs, stiffens and narrows the blood vessels, greatly diminishing their ability to deliver blood to the heart muscle and the brain. The condition, known as atherosclerotic vessel disease, is the leading cause of heart attacks and strokes that claim some 2.6 million lives a year worldwide, according to the World Health Organization.

A report on the work, published online in the journal Biomaterials, builds on recent research by the same team that previously identified a fat-and-sugar molecule called GSL as the chief culprit behind a range of biological glitches that affect the body’s ability to properly use, transport and purge itself of vessel-clogging cholesterol.

That earlier study showed that animals feasting on high-fat foods remained free of heart disease if pretreated with a man-made compound, D-PDMP, which works by blocking the synthesis of the mischievous GSL. But the body‘s natural tendency to rapidly break down and clear out D-PDMP was a major hurdle in efforts to test its therapeutic potential in larger animals and humans. The newly published report reveals the scientists  have cleared that hurdle by encapsulating D-PDMP into tiny molecules, which are absorbed faster and linger in the body much longer. In this case, the researchers say, their experiments show that when encapsulated that way, D-PDMP’s potency rose ten-fold in animals fed with it. Most strikingly, the team reports, the nano version of the compound was potent enough to halt the progression of atherosclerosis. As well, the nano-packaged drug improved physiologic outcomes among animals with heart muscle thickening and pumping dysfunction, the hallmarks of advanced disease.

Our experiments illustrate clearly that while content is important, packaging can make or break a drug,” says lead investigator Subroto Chatterjee, Ph.D., a professor of medicine and pediatrics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a metabolism expert at its Heart and Vascular Institute.In our study, the right packaging vastly improved the drug’s performance and its ability not merely to prevent disease but to mitigate some of its worst manifestations.”

Source: http://www.eurekalert.org/

How To Dissolve Blood Clots A Thousand Times Faster

By loading magnetic nanoparticles with drugs and dressing them in biochemical camouflage, Houston Methodist researchers say they can destroy blood clots 100 to 1,000 times faster than a commonly used clot-busting technique.

The finding, reported in Advanced Functional Materials, is based on experiments in human blood and mouse clotting models. If the drug delivery system performs similarly well in planned human clinical trials, it could mean a major step forward in the prevention of strokes, heart attacks, pulmonary embolisms, and other dire circumstances where clots — if not quickly busted — can cause severe tissue damage and death.

blood clot2
Each nanoparticle is composed of an iron oxide core (red squares) that is swathed in albumin (grey) and the anti-clotting agent tPA (green). The iron oxide cubes are about 20 nm on a side
We have designed the nanoparticles so that they trap themselves at the site of the clot, which means they can quickly deliver a burst of the commonly used clot-busting drug tPA where it is most needed,” said Paolo Decuzzi, Ph.D., the study’s co-principal investigator.

Decuzzi leads the Houston Methodist Research Institute Dept. of Translational Imaging.
Source: http://www.eurekalert.org/

NanoDrones Destroy Fat In Arteries

Nanometer-sized “drones” will deliver a special type of healing molecule to fat deposits in arteries. This is new approach to prevent heart attacks caused by atherosclerosis, according to a study in pre-clinical models by scientists at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) and Columbia University Medical Center.

Although current treatments have reduced the number of deaths from atherosclerosis-related disease, atherosclerosis remains a dangerous health problem: Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries is the #1 killer of women and men in the U.S., resulting in one out of every four deaths. In the study, targeted biodegradable nanodrones’ that delivered a special type of drug that promotes healing (‘resolution‘) successfully restructured atherosclerotic plaques in mice to make them more stable. This remodeling of the plaque environment would be predicted in humans to block plaque rupture and thrombosis and thereby prevent heart attacks and strokes.
nanodronesNanometer-sized ‘drones’ that deliver a special type of healing molecule to fat deposits in arteries could become a new way to prevent heart attacks caused by atherosclerosis
This is the first example of a targeted nanoparticle technology that reduces atherosclerosis in an animal model,” said co-senior author Omid Farokhzad, MD, associate professor and director of the Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Biomaterials at BWH and Harvard Medical School (HMS). “Years of research and collaboration have culminated in our ability to use nanotechnology to resolve inflammation, remodel and stabilize plaques in a model of advanced atherosclerosis.”

These findings are published in the February 18th online issue of Science Translational Medicine.
Source: http://www.brighamandwomens.org/