College Student 3D Prints His Own Braces

Amos Dudley wears his skills in his smile. The digital design major has been straightening his top teeth for the past 16 weeks using clear braces he made himself.

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 “I’m still wearing the last one,” said Dudley . “The last one” refers to the twelfth and final straightening tray in his self-designed treatment. Dudley said he had braces when he was in junior high, but he didn’t wear his retainer as much as he should have, and his teeth shifted. Over time, Dudley discovered that he wasn’t smiling as much because he wasn’t happy with the way his teeth looked.

Name brand options for clear braces can cost up to $8,000, according to companies like Invisalign, Damon, and ClearCorrect. But the 24-year-old wanted to save money, so he found a way to manufacture his own for less than $60. The total cost is so low because he only had to pay for materials used to make the models of his teeth and the retainers. Even though he built his own 3D printer at home, he opted to use a high-end and more precise 3D printer at his school, New Jersey Institute of Technology.

He used NJIT’s equipment to scan and print models of his teeth, and mold non-toxic plastic around them to form the set of 12 clear braces. Dudley determined out how far he needed to move his teeth to correct the misalignment problems. Then divided it by the maximum recommended distance a tooth should travel to determine the design for each alignment tray. Orthodontists use a similar process. Researching the materials he needed and figuring out how teeth move was the most difficult part of Dudley’s orthodontic adventure. The most exciting was when he finally put the first aligner in his mouth. “It was very obvious which tooth [the tray] was putting pressure on,” he said. “I was sort of worried about accumulated error, but that wasn’t the case so that was a pretty glorious moment.

Source: http://money.cnn.com/

Stem Cells Boost Bones Repair

A recent study, affiliated with UNIST (South Korea) has developed a new method of repairing injured bone using stem cells from human bone marrow and a carbon material with photocatalytic properties, which could lead to powerful treatments for skeletal system injuries, such as fractures or periodontal disease. In the study, the research team reported that the use of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) has been tried successfully in fracture treatment due to their potential to regenerate bone in patients who have lost large areas of bone from either disease or trauma. Recently, many attempts have been made to enhance the function of stem cells using carbon nanotubes, graphenes, and nano-oxides.

Professor Kim and Professor Suh (UNIST) examined the C₃N₄sheets. They discovered that this material absorbs red light and then emits fluorescence, which can be used to speed up bone regeneration. Professor Suh conducted a biomedical application of this material. After two days of testing, the material showed no cytotoxicity, making it useful as biomaterials.

bone-repairUpper left) Chemical bonding and physical structure of C₃N₄4 sheets. (Lower left) In a liquid state, red light is transmitted at a maximum of 450nm and emitted at a wavelength of 635 nm. (Right) After 4 weeks of loading C₃N₄4 sheets into the skull-damaged mice, the skull was regenerated by more than 90%.

This research has opened up the possibility of developing a new medicine that effectively treats skeletal injuries, such as fractures and osteoporosis,” said Professor Young-Kyo Seo. “It will be a very useful tool for making artificial joints and teeth with the use of 3D printing. This is an important milestone in the analysis of biomechanical functions needed for the development of biomaterials, including adjuvants for hard tissues such as damaged bones and teeth.”

This research has been jointly conducted by Professor Youngkyo Seo of Life Sciences and Dr. Jitendra N. Tiwari of Chemistry in collaboration with Professor Kwang S. Kim of Natural Science, Professor Pann-Ghill Suh of Life Sciences, and seven other researchers from UNIST.  The results of the study has been published in the January issue of ACS Nano journal.

Source: https://news.unist.ac.kr/

Damaged teeth can be regrown naturally

A way to naturally regrow damaged teeth has been discovered by scientists in a breakthrough that could significantly reduce the need for fillings. Researchers at King’s College London (KCL) found that a drug designed to treat Alzheimer’s disease was able to stimulate the tooth to create new dentine capable of filling in large cavitiesTeeth can already cope with small areas of damage using the same process, but when the holes become too large a dentist must insert artificial cements or the tooth will be lost.

dentistCLICK ON THE IMAGE TO ENJOY THE VIDEO

The simplicity of our approach makes it ideal as a clinical dental product for the natural treatment of large cavities, by providing both pulp protection and restoring dentine,” said Professor Paul Sharpe, lead author of a paper in the journal Scientific Reports.  “In addition, using a drug that has already been tested in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease provides a real opportunity to get this dental treatment quickly into clinics.”

If a tooth is damaged or infected, the soft inner pulp can become exposed, risking further infection. When this happens, a band of dentine, the hard material that makes up most of the tooth, will attempt to bridge the gap and seal off the pulp. But the researchers found that the natural repair mechanism could be boosted if the drug  Tideglusib was used. Previously it has been trialled as a treatment for various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s. It works by stimulating stem cells, which can turn into any type of tissue in the body, already present in the pulp to create new dentine.

The drug and a substance called glycogen synthase kinase were applied to the tooth on a biodegradable sponge made from collagen. As the sponge degraded, it was replaced by dentineleading to complete, natural repair”, according to a statement about the research issued by KCL.

Source: http://www.independent.co.uk/

Teeth: nanoparticles increase the efficiency of bacterial killing more than 5,000-fold

The bacteria that live in dental plaque and contribute to tooth decay often resist traditional antimicrobial treatment, as they can “hide within a sticky biofilm matrix, a glue-like polymer scaffold.

A new strategy conceived by University of Pennsylvania researchers took a more sophisticated approach. Instead of simply applying an antimicrobial to the teeth, they took advantage of the pH-sensitive and enzyme-like properties of iron-containing nanoparticles to catalyze the activity of hydrogen peroxide, a commonly used natural antiseptic. The activated hydrogen peroxide produced free radicals that were able to simultaneously degrade the biofilm matrix and kill the bacteria within, significantly reducing plaque and preventing the tooth decay, or cavities, in an animal model.

Beautiful woman smile. Dental health care clinic.Even using a very low concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the process was incredibly effective at disrupting the biofilm,” said Hyun (Michel) Koo, a professor in the Penn School of Dental Medicine’s Department of Orthodontics  and the senior author of the study, which was published in the journal Biomaterials. “Adding nanoparticles increased the efficiency of bacterial killing more than 5,000-fold.”

 

Source: https://news.upenn.edu/

How Nanoparticles Can Repair Damaged Teeth

Researchers at the University of Birmingham have shown how the development of coated silica nanoparticles could be used in restorative treatment of sensitive teeth and preventing the onset of tooth decay.

The study, led by Professor Damien Walmsley, from the School of Dentistry at the University of Birmingham (UK), has been published in the Journal of Dentistry, and shows how sub-micron silica particles can be prepared to deliver important compounds into damaged teeth through tubules in the dentine. The tiny particles can be bound to compounds ranging from calcium tooth building materials to antimicrobials that prevent infection.

smiling-girl

The dentine of our teeth have numerous microscopic holes, which are the entrances to tubules that run through to the nerve. When your outer enamel is breached, the exposure of these tubules is really noticeable. If you drink something cold, you can feel the sensitivity in your teeth because these tubules run directly through to the nerve and the soft tissue of the tooth”, explains Damien Walmsley.

Our plan was to use target those same tubules with a multifunctional agent that can help repair and restore the tooth, while protecting it against further infection that could penetrate the pulp and cause irreversible damage.”

The aim of restorative agents is to increase the mineral content of both the enamel and dentine, with the particles acting like seeds for further growth that would close the tubules.

Source: http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/

Clean Your Teeth With Ions Instead Of Toothpaste

Japanese designer Kosho Ueshima has designed a nanotech toothbrush that cleans your teeth without toothpaste. The Misoka toothbrush, created in collaboration with Osaka technology company Yumeshokunin (Japan), features bristles coated in nano-sized mineral ions measuring one billionth of a metre in diameter. The ions pass from the bristles to the teeth during brushing, removing stains and forming a protective coating on the enamel.
toothbrush-cleans-your-teeth-with-nanotechnology
The toothbrush features bristles that measure just 0.178 millimetres in thickness, and which are tapered at the ends. This allows them to clean in the gaps between the teeth.

Even without toothpaste, your teeth stay as shiny and clean as though you just walked out of a teeth-cleaning session at the dentist’s,” said the designers.

Source: http://www.dezeen.com/

How To Prevent Tooth Decay

Therapeutic agents intended to reduce dental plaque and prevent tooth decay are often removed by saliva and the act of swallowing before they can take effect. But a team of researchers has developed a way to keep the drugs from being washed away.
Dental plaque is made up of bacteria enmeshed in a sticky matrix of polymers — a polymeric matrix — that is firmly attached to teeth. The researchers, led by Danielle Benoit at the University of Rochester and Hyun Koo at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Dental Medicine, found a new way to deliver an antibacterial agent within the plaque, despite the presence of saliva.

dental-biofilm

We had two specific challenges,” said Benoit, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering. “We had to figure out how to deliver the anti-bacterial agent to the teeth and keep it there, and also how to release the agent into the targeted sites.

To deliver the agent—known as farnesol—to the targeted sites, the researchers created a spherical mass of particles, referred to as a nanoparticle carrier. They constructed the outer layer out of cationic — or positively charged—segments of the polymers. For inside the carrier, they secured the drug with hydrophobic and pH-responsive polymers.
The positively-charged outer layer of the carrier is able to stay in place at the surface of the teeth because the enamel is made up, in part, of HA (hydroxyapatite), which is negatively charged. Just as oppositely charged magnets are attracted to each other, the same is true of the nanoparticles and HA. Because teeth are coated with saliva, the researchers weren’t certain the nanoparticles would adhere. But not only did the particles stay in place, they were also able to bind with the polymeric matrix and stick to dental plaque.

Since the nanoparticles could bind both to saliva-coated teeth and within plaque, Benoit and colleagues used them to carry an anti-bacterial agent to the targeted sites. The researchers then needed to figure out how to effectively release the agent into the plaque. They find that the nanoparticles release the drug when exposed to cavity-causing eating habits.
The findings have been published in the journal ACS Nano.
Source: http://www.rochester.edu/

Teeth: How To Rebuild Worn Enamel

Scientists are developing a new biomaterial that can potentially rebuild worn enamel and reduce tooth sensitivity for an extended period. They describe the material, which they tested on dogs, in the journal ACS Nano.
Chun-Pin Lin and colleagues note that tooth sensitivity is one of the most common complaints among dental patients. Not only does it cause sharp pains, but it can also lead to more serious dental problems. The condition occurs when a tooth’s enamel degrades, exposing tiny, porous tubes and allowing underlying nerves to become more vulnerable to hot and cold.

white-teeth-woman-smilingA new material could treat tooth sensitivity by re-covering exposed tubules when enamel wears away.The researchers made a novel paste based on the elements found in teeth, namely calcium and phosphorus. They applied the mixture to dogs’ teeth and found that it plugged exposed tubes more deeply than other treatments. This depth could be the key, the researchers conclude, to repairing damaged enamel and providing longer-lasting relief from tooth sensitivity.
Current treatments, including special toothpastes, work by blocking the openings of the tubes. But the seal they create is superficial and doesn’t stand up to the wear-and-tear of daily brushing and chewing. Lin’s team wanted to find a more durable way to address the condition.
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Source; http://www.acs.org/