Rapid, Cheap Liver Cancer Test

University of Utah researchers say they are designing a diagnostic method that will be able to accurately identify signs of liver cancer within minutes, saving critical time for patients of the stealthy disease. The new type of test could forever change how people screen for the disease, said Marc Porter, a U. chemical engineering and chemistry professor who is leading the research along with Dr. Courtney Scaife, a surgeon who both practices and teaches surgery for the university. Porter said the long-term vision is for the tool itself to become as automatic and portable as a pregnancy test, though additional technology — called a spectrometer — is currently needed to precisely measure the results of the test.

A small domino-sized cartridge holds a membrane for a new field test for liver cancer developed by researchers from the University of Utah. The test doesn’t involve sending a specimen to a blood lab and cuts the wait time for results from two weeks to two minutes. It can be administered wherever the patient is, which will be valuable for developing nations with little access to hospitals.

It’s really compact, it’s simple and low cost,” he said of the test kit.

Liver cancer is difficult to survive because typically it is highly developed by the time symptoms show up, Porter said. It is the second deadliest form of cancer worldwide, resulting in about 788,000 deaths in 2015, according to the World Health Organization. “All too often, the cancer is diagnosed past when you can actually have surgical intervention,” Porter said.

Currently, a blood test taken to determine the presence of liver cancer is usually sent to a lab offsite, where it takes days or even up to two weeks to test and return, said Vincent Horiuchi, spokesman for the U.’s College of Engineering. Those days are precious time that is lost in the fight against the disease, he said.

Source: https://unews.utah.edu/

Compact, Ultra Sensitive BioSensor Gives Infos From A Blood Drop

Imagine a hand-held environmental sensor that can instantly test water for lead, E. coli, and pesticides all at the same time, or a biosensor that can perform a complete blood workup from just a single drop. That’s the promise of nanoscale plasmonic interferometry, a technique that combines nanotechnology with plasmonics—the interaction between electrons in a metal and light.

Now researchers from Brown University’s School of Engineering have made an important fundamental advance that could make such devices more practical. The research team has developed a technique that eliminates the need for highly specialized external light sources that deliver coherent light, which the technique normally requires. The advance could enable more versatile and more compact devices.

  • FluorescencePlasmonicInterferometryPlasmonic interferometers that have light emitters within them could make for better, more compact biosensors.

It has always been assumed that coherent light was necessary for plasmonic interferometry,” said Domenico Pacifici, a professor of engineering who oversaw the work with his postdoctoral researcher Dongfang Li, and graduate student Jing Feng. “But we were able to disprove that assumption.”

The research is described in Nature Scientific Reports.

Source: https://news.brown.edu/

Ebola: Drop Of Blood Tested in Fifteen Minutes

The Comissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), France, has developed a rapid diagnostic test for Ebola. The immediate production phase starts with the assistance of the company VEDALAB, European leader in rapid diagnosis. This test has just received the technical validation of the high security Microbiological Laboratory P4 Jean Mérieux (Inserm), the french entity that has in charge studies of the Ebola strain outbreak in West Africa.

test ebolaCEA has developed a rapid test for the diagnosis of Ebola particularly suited to the current health emergency. Called Ebola eZYSCREEN with a similar size than pregnancy tests, the device will be used in the field, without special equipment, from a drop of blood, plasma or urine. He is able to give an answer in less than 15 minutes for any patient with symptoms of the disease.

Current tests based on genetic testing of the virus, are very sensitive, but require dedicated devices, taking 2:15 to 2:30 and should be performed only in the laboratory. The rapid test has the advantage of an initial diagnosis of patients closer to the affected populations. It aims to facilitate the supply chain and decision necessary to guide people on the ground. It would particularly reduce the number of analyzes to be performed in a dedicated laboratory.
Source: http://www.cea.fr/

Nanodevice To Detect Cancer At Extremely Early Stage

Extremely early detection of cancers and other diseases is on the horizon with a supersensitive nanodevice being developed at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in collaboration with The Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering (JSNN) in Greensboro, NC. The device is ready for packaging into a lunchbox-size unit that ultimately may use a cellphone app to provide test results.
Uah team
We are submitting grant applications with our collaborator Dr. Jianjun Wei, an associate professor at the JSNN, to the National Institutes of Health to fund our future integration work,” says Dr. Yongbin Lin, a research scientist at UAH‘s Nano and Micro Devices Center who has been working on the nanodevice at the core of the diagnostic unit for about five years. “In the future, we will do an integration of the system with everything inside a box. If we get funding support, I think that within three to five years it may be realized.” “The most significant aspect of the device medically is that it can detect trace levels of cancer biomarkers in the blood,” says UAH senior Molly Sanders of Huntsville.

The sensitivity of the equipment holds promise for finding cancer at a very early stage, even while it is at the small cluster of cells level, says Dr. Lin. “At that stage, it is easier to treat.”
Source: http://www.uah.edu/

Measuring DNA Repairs To Predict Cancer

Test analyzing cells’ ability to fix different kinds of broken DNA could help doctors predict cancer risk. Now a research team, led by professor Leona Samson from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) used this approach to measure DNA repair in a type of immortalized human blood cells called lymphoblastoid cells, taken from 24 healthy people. They found a huge range of variability, especially in one repair system where some people’s cells were more than 10 times more efficient than others.
Our DNA is under constant attack from many sources, including environmental pollutants, ultraviolet light, and radiation. Fortunately, cells have several major DNA repair systems that can fix this damage, which may lead to cancer and other diseases if not mended.
The effectiveness of these repair systems varies greatly from person to person; scientists believe that this variability may explain why some people get cancer while others exposed to similar DNA-damaging agents do not. The team of MIT researchers has now developed a test that can rapidly assess several of these repair systems, which could help determine individuals’ risk of developing cancer and help doctors predict how a given patient will respond to chemotherapy drugs.

All of the repair pathways work differently, and the existing technology to measure each of those pathways is very different for each one. It takes expertise, it’s time-consuming, and it’s labor-intensive,” says Zachary Nagel, an MIT postdoc and lead author of the PNAS paper. “What we wanted to do was come up with one way of measuring all DNA repair pathways at the same time so you have a single readout that’s easy to measure.

None of the cells came out looking the same. They each have their own spectrum of what they can repair well and what they don’t repair well. It’s like a fingerprint for each person,” says Samson, who is the Uncas and Helen Whitaker Professor, an American Cancer Society Professor, and a member of MIT’s departments of biological engineering and of biology, Center for Environmental Health Sciences, and Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research.

The new test, described in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of April 21, can analyze four types of DNA repair capacity simultaneously, in less than 24 hours.
Source: https://newsoffice.mit.edu/